Plotino - Tratado 9,7 (VI, 9, 7) — Para alcançar o Uno, a alma deve se voltar para ela mesma
sábado 26 de março de 2022, por
Capítulo 7: Para alcançar o Uno, a alma deve se voltar para ela mesma.
7. E se teu pensamento permanece em um estado determinado, posto que não é nenhuma destas coisas, deves te apoiar sobre elas e o contemplar a partir delas. Mas contemple-o sem projetar teu pensamento no exterior, pois ele não se encontra em nenhuma parte e não abandone as outras coisas, mas está sempre presente para quem pode tocá-lo, ausente para que é incapaz. Assim como é impossível, para as outras coisas, de pensar em uma pensando em uma outra e se ocupando de uma outra, e assim como nada é necessário adicionar a isto que é pensado a fim de que seja ele que seja objeto de nosso pensamento, da mesma maneira, no caso do Uno, é preciso saber que não é possível de pensá-lo quando se tem na alma a impressão de uma outra coisa e tanto tempo quanto esta impressão aja; e que não menos é possível à alma, se ela é possuída e dominada por outras coisas, de ser modelada pela impressão do objeto contrário. Mas como se diz da matéria que deve ser absolutamente sem qualidades se ela deve receber as marcas de todas as coisas, da mesma maneira, e mais ainda, é preciso que a alma seja desprovida de forma, para que não haja qualquer obstáculo nela que a impeça de ser preenchida e iluminada pelo primeiro. Se assim vai, é preciso que, se retirando de todas as coisas exteriores, ela se volte inteiramente para o interior, sem se inclinar para nenhuma das coisas exteriores. Ao contrário, é em ignorando todas as coisas, a princípio aquele que provém da sensação , em seguida as formas por sua vez, e em se ignorando enfim ela mesma, que ela deve alcançar à contemplação do Uno; e, unida a ele e tendo, por assim dizer, suficientemente desfrutado de sua companhia, é preciso que ela venha anunciar aos outros, se ela o pode, o que é a frequentação de lá. Eis talvez porque Minos ele também tinha lidado com uma semelhante frequentação que foi dita «familiar de Zeus »; se recordando, tinha estabelecido leis que eram imagens, depois de ter sido fecundado para legiferar pelo contato divino. Ou então, é porque ele estimava os afazeres da cidade indignos dele que queria sempre permanecer lá; e isto poderia bem ser a condição daquele que muito contemplou. «Não está no exterior de nada», diz Platão, mas está com todas as coisas, sem que elas o saibam. Pois elas fogem fora de si, ou melhor, fora delas mesmas. Logo elas não podem apreender aquele que elas fugiram, nem, estando perdidas, buscar um outro, quanto mais uma criança que a loucura teria posto dora de si e não poderia reconhecer seu pai ; mas em revanche, aquele que é reconhecido ele mesmo saberá também de onde vem.
7. If the mind reels before something thus alien to all we know, we must take our stand on the things of this realm and strive thence to see. But, in the looking, beware of throwing outward; this Principle does not lie away somewhere leaving the rest void; to those of power to reach, it is present; to the inapt, absent. In our daily affairs we cannot hold an object in mind if we have given ourselves elsewhere, occupied upon some other matter; that very thing must be before us to be truly the object of observation. So here also; preoccupied by the impress of something else, we are withheld under that pressure from becoming aware of The Unity; a mind gripped and fastened by some definite thing cannot take the print of the very contrary. As Matter, it is agreed, must be void of quality in order to accept the types of the universe, so and much more must the soul be kept formless if there is to be no infixed impediment to prevent it being brimmed and lit by the Primal Principle.
In sum, we must withdraw from all the extern, pointed wholly inwards; no leaning to the outer; the total of things ignored, first in their relation to us and later in the very idea; the self put out of mind in the contemplation of the Supreme; all the commerce so closely There that, if report were possible, one might become to others reporter of that communion.
Such converse, we may suppose, was that of Minos , thence known as the Familiar of Zeus; and in that memory he established the laws which report it, enlarged to that task by his vision There. Some, on the other hand, there will be to disdain such citizen service, choosing to remain in the higher: these will be those that have seen much.
God - we read - is outside of none, present unperceived to all; we break away from Him, or rather from ourselves; what we turn from we cannot reach; astray ourselves, we cannot go in search of another; a child distraught will not recognise its father; to find ourselves is to know our source.
 Si, parce que Dieu n’est aucune de ces choses [que vous connaissez], votre esprit reste dans l’incertitude, appliquez-le d’abord à ces choses, puis, de là, fixez-le sur Dieu (24). Or, le fixant sur Dieu, ne vous laissez distraire par rien d’extérieur : car il n’est pas dans un lieu déterminé, privant le reste de sa présence, mais il est présent partout où il se trouve quelqu’un qui puisse entrer en contact avec lui (25); il n’est absent que pour ceux qui ne peuvent 552 y réussir (26).De même que, pour les autres objets, on ne saurait découvrir celui que l’on cherche si l’on pense à un autre, et que l’on ne doit rien ajouter d’étranger à l’objet qu’on pense si l’on veut s’identifier avec lui ; de même ici il faut être bien convaincu qu’il est impossible à celui qui a (27)dans l’âme quelque image étrangère de concevoir Dieu tant que cette image distrait son attention; il est également impossible que l’âme, au moment où elle est attentive et attachée à d’autres choses, prenne la forme de ce qui leur est contraire. De même encore que l’on dit de la mati ère qu’elle doit être absolument privée de toute qualité pour être susceptible de recevoir toutes les formes ; de même , et à plus forte raison encore, l’âme doit-elle être dégagée de toute forme (ἀνείδεος), si elle veut que rien en elle ne l’empêche d’être remplie et illuminée par la nature première (φύσις πρώτη) (28). Ainsi, après s’être affranchie de toutes les choses extérieures, l’âme se tournera entièrement vers ce qu’il 553 y a de plus intime en elle; elle ne se laissera détourner par aucun des objets qui l’entourent; elle ignorera toutes choses, d’abord par l’effet même de l’état dans lequel elle se trouvera, ensuite par l’absence de toute conception des formes ; elle ne saura même pas qu’elle s’applique à la contemplation de l’Un, qu’elle lui est unie; puis, après être suffisamment demeurée avec lui, elle viendra révéler aux autres, si elle le peut, ce commerce céleste (ἡ ἐκεῖ συνουσία). C’est sans doute pour avoir joui de ce commerce que Minos passa pour avoir conversé avec Jupiter (29): plein du souvenir de cet entretien, il fit des lois qui en étaient l’image, parce que, lorsqu’il les rédigea, il était encore sous l’influence de son union avec Dieu. Peut-être même l’âme, dans cet état, jugera-t-elle les vertus civiles peu dignes d’elle (30), si elle veut demeurer là-haut; c’est ce qui arrive à celui qui a longtemps contemplé Dieu.
[En résumé (31),] Dieu n’est en dehors d’aucun être; il est au contraire présenta tous les êtres, mais ceux-ci peuvent l’ignorer : c’est qu’ils sont fugitifs et errants hors de lui, ou plutôt hors d’eux-mêmes (32) : ils ne peuvent point atteindre celui qu’ils fuient, ni, s’étant perdus eux-mêmes, trouver un autre être. Un fils, s’il est furieux et hors de lui-même, ne 554 reconnaîtra pas son père. Mais celui qui aura appris à se connaître lui-même connaîtra en même temps d’où il vient (33).
THE SOUL MUST BE STRIPPED OF FORM TO BE ILLUMINATED BY PRIMARY NATURE.
7. Your mind remains in uncertainty because the divinity is none of these things (that you know). Apply it first to these things, and later fix it on the divinity. While doing so, do not let yourself be distracted by anything exterior for the divinity is not in any definite place, depriving the remainder of its presence, but it is present wherever there is any person who is capable of entering into contact therewith. It is absent only for those who cannot succeed therein. Just as, for other objects, one could not discover what one seeks by thinking of something else, and as one should not add any alien thing to the object that is thought if one wishes to identify oneself therewith; likewise here one must be thoroughly convinced that it is impossible for any one whose soul contains any alien image to conceive of the divinity so long as such an image distracts the soul’s attention. It is equally impossible that the soul, at the moment that she is attentive, and attached to other things, should assume the form of what is contrary to them. Just as it is said of matter that it must be absolutely deprived of all qualities to be susceptible of receiving all forms; likewise, and for a stronger reason, the soul must be stripped of all form, if she desire to be filled with and illuminated by the primary nature without any interior hindrance. Thus, having liberated herself from all exterior things, the soul will entirely turn to what is most intimate in her; she will not allow herself to be turned away by any of the surrounding objects and she will put aside all things, first by the very effect of the state in which she will find herself, and later by the absence of any conception of form. She will not even know that she is applying herself to the contemplation of the One, or that she is united thereto. Then, after having sufficiently dwelt with it, she will, if she can, come to reveal to others this heavenly communion. Doubtless it was enjoyment of this communion that was the basis of the traditional conversation of Minos with Jupiter. Inspired with the memories of this interview, he made laws which represented it, because, while he was drawing them up, he was still under the influence of his union with the divinity. Perhaps even, in this state, the soul may look down on civil virtues as hardly worthy of her, inasmuch as she desires to dwell on high; and this does indeed happen to such as have long contemplated the divinity.
ON SELF-KNOWLEDGE DEPENDS RECOGNITION OF DIVINE KINSHIP.
(In short), the divinity is not outside of any being. On the contrary, He is present to all beings, though these may be ignorant thereof. This happens because they are fugitives, wandering outside of Him or rather, outside of themselves. They cannot reach Him from whom they are fleeing, nor, having lost themselves, can they find another being. A son, if angry, and beside himself, is not likely to recognize his father. But he who will have learnt to know himself will at the same time discover from where he hails.
VII. If, however, because it is none of these things, you become indefinite in your decision, in this case establish yourself in the above mentioned particulars, and from these [ascend to] and fix yourself in God. But for this purpose you must not extend the dianoetic power outwardly. For God is not in a certain place, so as to desert other things; but wherever any thing is able to come into contact with him, there he is present. Hence, as in other things, it is not possible to perceive something intellectually, while understanding and attending to another thing, but it is necessary not to introduce any thing else to the object of intellectual vision, in order that the perceiver may be the thing itself which is perceived; — thus also here, it is not possible for the soul to perceive God, while it retains the impression of something else, and energizes according to that impression. Nor again, is it possible for the soul while occupied and detained by other things to be impressed with the form of something contrary to them. But as it is said of matter, that it ought to be void of all qualities, in order that it may receive the impressions of all things; thus also, and in a much greater degree, it is necessary that the soul should become formless, in order that there may be no impediment to its being filled and illuminated by the first principle of things. If, however, this be the case, it is requisite that the soul, dismissing all externals, should be entirely converted to its inmost recesses, and should not be called to any thing external, but should be unintellective of all things; and prior to this indeed, in inclination, but then also it should be without the perception of forms. It is likewise necessary that the soul, being ignorant of herself, should dwell on the contemplation of God, and associating, and as it were sufficiently conversing with him, should announce, if possible, the conference which it there held to another; which Minos perhaps having accomplished, was on this account said to be the familiar of Jupiter. Calling to mind also this conference, he established laws which were the images of it, being filled through the contact with divinity with materials for the institution of laws. Or may we not say that the soul, if she wishes to abide on high, will consider political concerns as unworthy to be the subject of conference with deity ? For this indeed will be the language of him who has seen much of divinity. For, as it is said, God is not external to any one, but is present with all things, though they are ignorant that he is so. For they fly from him, or rather from themselves. They are unable, therefore, to apprehend that from which they fly. And having destroyed themselves, they are incapable of seeking after another. For neither will a child, when through insanity he becomes out of himself, recognize his father. But he who knows himself, will also know from whence he was derived.
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