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Plotino - Tratado 51,12 (I, 8, 12) — Vício e privação parcial

sábado 12 de fevereiro de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro



12 Y si alguien dijera que el vicio y el mal existente en el alma no es una privación completa de bien, sino una cierta privación de bien, ¿qué decir a esto?

Es que, en ese caso, teniendo el alma una parte de bien y estando privada de otra parte, la disposición que tenga será mixta, y no el mal absoluto. Así que no hemos hallado todavía el mal primario y absoluto. El alma poseerá el bien en su propia sustancia, y el mal será para ella un accidente.


Dira-t-on que dans l’âme la méchanceté et le mal ne sont pas une privation absolue, mais une privation relative du bien? Dans ce cas, s’il y a dans l’âme tout à la fois possession et privation du bien, elle aura un sentiment mêlé de bien et de mal, et non le Mal sans mélange, et nous n’aurons pas encore trouvé le premier Mal, le Mal absolu. Le bien de l’âme sera dans son essence; le mal n’en sera qu’un accident.



12. To the objection that in the soul wickedness and evil are not an absolute privation, but only a relative privation of good, it may be answered that in this case, if the soul simultaneously, contain possession and privation of the good, she will have possessed a feeling mingled of good and evil, and not of unmingled evil. We will still not have found the first evil, the absolute Evil. The good of the soul will reside in her essence (being); evil will only be an accident thereof.


12. If the existence of Matter be denied, the necessity of this Principle must be demonstrated from the treatises "On Matter" where the question is copiously treated.

To deny Evil a place among realities is necessarily to do away with the Good as well, and even to deny the existence of anything desirable; it is to deny desire, avoidance and all intellectual act; for desire has Good for its object, aversion looks to Evil; all intellectual act, all Wisdom, deals with Good and Bad, and is itself one of the things that are good.

There must then be The Good - good unmixed - and the Mingled Good and Bad, and the Rather Bad than Good, this last ending with the Utterly Bad we have been seeking, just as that in which Evil constitutes the lesser part tends, by that lessening, towards the Good.

What, then, must Evil be to the Soul?

What Soul could contain Evil unless by contact with the lower Kind? There could be no desire, no sorrow, no rage, no fear: fear touches the compounded dreading its dissolution; pain and sorrow are the accompaniments of the dissolution; desires spring from something troubling the grouped being or are a provision against trouble threatened; all impression is the stroke of something unreasonable outside the Soul, accepted only because the Soul is not devoid of parts or phases; the Soul takes up false notions through having gone outside of its own truth by ceasing to be purely itself.

One desire or appetite there is which does not fall under this condemnation; it is the aspiration towards the Intellectual-Principle: this demands only that the Soul dwell alone enshrined within that place of its choice, never lapsing towards the lower.

Evil is not alone: by virtue of the nature of Good, the power of Good, it is not Evil only: it appears, necessarily, bound around with bonds of Beauty, like some captive bound in fetters of gold; and beneath these it is hidden so that, while it must exist, it may not be seen by the gods, and that men need not always have evil before their eyes, but that when it comes before them they may still be not destitute of Images of the Good and Beautiful for their Remembrance.

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