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Plotino - Tratado 5,11 (V, 9, 11) — Há Formas dos produtos da técnica?

Enéada V, 9, 11

quarta-feira 15 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 11: Há Formas dos produtos da técnica?

  • 1-6. As Formas dos produtos da técnica e das técnicas.
  • 7-24. As técnicas misturam princípios e proporções inteligíveis com o sensível: logo elas não se encontram no mundo inteligível, a não ser porque estão no homem, que pode contemplar o inteligível e dele se servir como modelo na sua atividade.
  • 24-27. A geometria e o saber, que concernem realidade inteligíveis, encontram-se no mundo inteligível.

Míguez

11. Todas las artes de imitación, como la pintura y la escultura, la danza y la pantomima, son artes propias de este mundo porque tienen un modelo sensible e imitan formas y producen cambios de movimientos y de simetrías visibles. No sería lógico trasladarlas al mundo inteligible, si no hubiese que referirlas a la razón humana. Si consideramos la constitución del (animal universal) partiendo de la simetría visible en todos los demás animales, hacemos uso de una parte de la facultad que, en el mundo inteligible, considera y contempla la perfecta simetría en el ser inteligible. Y otro tanto hay que decir de la música, que ejercita sus pensamientos sobre el ritmo y la armonía; pues se produce del mismo modo que la que tiene por objeto el ritmo inteligible. Todas las artes que fabrican objetos sensibles, como por ejemplo la arquitectura o el arte del carpintero, sacan sus principios del mundo inteligible y de los pensamientos del mundo inteligible, en tanto se ajusten a la simetría. Pero como mezclan estos pensamientos a un objeto sensible, su objeto no se encuentra por entero en el mundo inteligible, salvo que se le considere en la razón humana. No se hallan, pues, en el mundo inteligible, ni la agricultura que contribuye a la vegetación sensible, ni la medicina que atiende a la salud de los hombres, o a la fuerza y bienestar de sus cuerpos. Porque en esa región se dan otra fuerza y otra salud, por las que todos los seres aparecen inmóviles y satisfechos. La retórica, la estrategia, el gobierno de la casa y el arte de reinar, si comunican la belleza a sus acciones, introducen naturalmente en la ciencia una parte del mundo inteligible y de la ciencia misma del mundo inteligible. Así, la geometría, que se refiere a objetos inteligibles, debe ser integrada en el mundo inteligible, e, igualmente, con mucho mayor motivo, la sabiduría que se ocupa del ser. He aquí lo que convenía decir acerca de las artes y de los objetos producidos por ellas.

Bouillet

XI. Considérons donc les arts et leurs productions. On ne peut rapporter au monde intelligible, si ce n’est comme impliqués dans la raison humaine, les arts d’imitation tels que la peinture, la sculpture, la danse, l’art mimique, parce qu’ils prennent naissance ici-bas, qu’ils se proposent pour modèles des objets sensibles, qu’ils en représentent les figures, les mouvements et les proportions visibles (39). S’il y a en nous une faculté qui, en étudiant les beautés qu’offre la symétrie dans les animaux, considère les caractères généraux de cette symétrie, elle fait partie de la puissance intellectuelle qui contemple là-haut la symétrie universelle. Quant à la musique, qui étudie le rhythme et l’harmonie, elle est, en tant qu’elle examine ce qu’il y a d’intelligible dans ces deux choses, l’image de la musique qui s’occupe du rhythme intelligible.

Pour les arts qui produisent des œuvres sensibles,comme l’architecture, l’art du charpentier, en tant qu’ils font usage de certaines proportions, ils ont leurs principes dans le monde intelligible et ils participent à sa sagesse. Mais, comme ils appliquent ces proportions à des objets sensibles, ils ne peuvent être tout entiers rapportés au monde intelligible, si ce n’est en tant qu’ils sont contenus dans la raison humaine. Il en est de même de l’agriculture, qui seconde le développement des végétaux; de la médecine, qui s’occupe de procurer ici-bas la santé, et de l’art qui donne au corps la force ainsi que la vigueur (40) : car il y a là-haut une autre puissance, une autre santé, desquelles tous les animaux tiennent la vigueur dont ils ont besoin.

Enfin, la rhétorique, la stratégie, l’économie privée et publique, la politique, participent à la science intelligible lorsqu’elles pratiquent et qu’elles étudient les principes de l’honnête (41). La géométrie, qui s’occupe des choses intelligibles, doit être rapportée au monde intelligible. Il en est de même de la philosophie : elle occupe le premier rang parmi les sciences parce qu’elle étudie l’être. Voilà ce que nous avions à dire des arts et des œuvres qu’ils produisent.

Guthrie

SOME ARTS ARE PURELY EARTHLY; OTHERS, LIKE MUSIC, INTELLIGIBLE.

11. Let us therefore consider the arts and their products. Unless as represented within human reason, we cannot refer to the intelligible world arts of imitation such as painting, sculpture, dancing, or acting, because they are born here below, take sense-objects as models, representing their forms, motions, and visible proportions. If, however, we possess a faculty which, by studying the beauties offered by the symmetry of animals, considers the general characteristics of this symmetry, it must form part of the intellectual power which, on high, contemplates universal symmetry. Music, however, which studies rhythm and harmony, is, so far as it studies what is intelligible in these things, the image of the music that deals with intelligible rhythm.

THERE ARE MANY AUXILIARY ARTS WHICH HELP THE PROGRESS OF NATURE.

The arts which produce sense-objects, such as architecture and carpentry, have their principles in the intelligible world, and participate in wisdom, so far as they make use of certain proportions. But as they apply these proportions to sense-objects, they cannot wholly be referred to the intelligible world, unless in so far as they are contained within human reason. The case is similar with agriculture, which assists the growth of plants; medicine, which increases health, and (gymnastics) which supplies the body with strength as well as vigor, for on high there is another Power, another Health, from which all living organisms derive their needed vigor.

OTHER ARTS ARE INTELLIGIBLE WHEN APPLIED TO THE INTELLIGIBLE.

Last, whenever rhetoric, strategy, private and public finance and politics weave beauty in their deeds, and they glance above, they (discover) that they have added to their science a contribution from the intelligible science.

The science of geometry, however, which deals (wholly) with intelligible entities, must be referred to the intelligible world. So also with philosophy, which occupies the first rank among sciences because it studies essence. This is all we have to say about arts and their products.

Taylor

XI With respect, therefore, to things pertaining to the arts, and the arts themselves, the arts that are imitative, such as painting, statuary, dancing and pantomine, since they derive their subsistence from sensibles, and employ and imitate a sensible paradigm, and also transfer [to their originals] the forms, motions and symmetries which they perceive, cannot properly be referred to intelligibles, except so far as the forms in the human soul may be called intelligible. If any one, however, considers the habit in all animals arising from the symmetry of their formation, this will be a part of the power which in the intelligible world surveys and contemplates the symmetry of all things that are there. Moreover, with respect to all music which is conversant with harmony and rythm, so far as its conceptions are employed about rythm and harmony, it will subsist after the same manner as the music which is conversant with intelligible rythm. With respect to such arts as are productive of sensible things conformably to art, as the builder’s and the carpenter’s art, — these, so far as they employ symmetry, will derive their principles from intelligibles, and from the wisdom which is there. But as they mingle these with a sensible nature, the whole of them will not be in intelligibles, except so far as they subsist in man [i.e. in the human soul]. Neither will the agriculture be there which is conversant with a sensible plant; nor the medicine which surveys the health of the body, or which contributes to strength and a good corporeal habit. For there is another power, and another health there, through which all animals are sufficiently corroborated. With respect to rhetoric also, and the military art, economics, and the art pertaining to regal government, if some of these partake in actions of the beautiful, and make it the object of their contemplation, — in this case, they have a scientific allotment from the science which is there. But geometry, which is conversant with intelligibles, must be arranged in the intelligible world; as likewise must the highest wisdom which is conversant with real being. And thus much concerning the arts, and things pertaining to the arts.

MacKenna

11. Now as to the arts and crafts and their productions:

The imitative arts - painting, sculpture, dancing, pantomimic gesturing - are, largely, earth-based; on an earthly base; they follow models found in sense, since they copy forms and movements and reproduce seen symmetries; they cannot therefore be referred to that higher sphere except indirectly, through the Reason-Principle in humanity.

On the other hand any skill which, beginning with the observation of the symmetry of living things, grows to the symmetry of all life, will be a portion of the Power There which observes and meditates the symmetry reigning among all beings in the Intellectual Kosmos. Thus all music - since its thought is upon melody and rhythm - must be the earthly representation of the music there is in the rhythm of the Ideal Realm.

The crafts, such as building and carpentry which give us Matter in wrought forms, may be said, in that they draw on pattern, to take their principles from that realm and from the thinking There: but in that they bring these down into contact with the sense-order, they are not wholly in the Intellectual: they are founded in man. So agriculture, dealing with material growths: so medicine watching over physical health; so the art which aims at corporeal strength and well-being: power and well-being mean something else There, the fearlessness and self-sufficing quality of all that lives.

Oratory and generalship, administration and sovereignty - under any forms in which their activities are associated with Good and when they look to that - possess something derived thence and building up their knowledge from the knowledge There.

Geometry, the science of the Intellectual entities, holds place There: so, too, philosophy, whose high concern is Being.

For the arts and products of art, these observations may suffice.