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Plotino - Tratado 27,15 (IV, 3, 15) — Os diferentes níveis de descida da alma (1)

Enéada IV, 3, 15

sábado 2 de abril de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Cap 12-19: As almas humanas

  • Cap 12: Sua descida não é total mas cíclica
  • Cap 13: Sua descida obedece a uma lei
  • Cap 14: As almas são o ornamento do mundo
  • Cap 15 a 17: Os diferentes níveis de descida
  • Cap 18: O uso do raciocínio
  • Cap 19: Um comentário do Timeu   35a-b
    

Míguez

15. Las almas, pues, se precipitan fuera del mundo inteligible, descendiendo primero al cielo   y tomando en él un cuerpo; luego, en su recorrido por el cielo, se acercan más o menos a los cuerpos de la tierra, a medida de su mayor o menor longitud. Así, unas pasan del cielo a los cuerpos inferiores y otras verifican el tránsito de unos a otros cuerpos porque no tienen el poder de elevarse de la tierra, siempre atraídas hacia ella por su misma pesadez y por el olvido que arrastran tras de sí, carga que verdaderamente las entorpece. Las diferencias existentes entre las almas habrá que atribuirlas a varias causas: o a los cuerpos en que ellas han penetrado, o a las condiciones que les han tocado en suerte, o a sus regímenes   de vida, o al carácter particular que ellas traen consigo, incluso, si se quiere, a todas estas razones juntas, o solamente a algunas de ellas. Unas almas, por su parte, se someten enteramente al destino; otras, en cambio, unas veces se someten y otras veces son dueñas de sí mismas; otras almas, en fin, conceden al destino todo cuanto es preciso darle, pero, en lo tocante a sus acciones, son realmente dueñas de sí mismas. Viven, por tanto, según otra ley, que es la ley que abarca a todos los seres y a la cual se entregan sin excepción todas las almas. La ley de que hablamos está formada de las razones seminales, que son las causas de todos los seres, de los movimientos de las almas y de sus leyes, provenientes del mundo inteligible. De ahí que concuerde con ese mundo y que tome de él sus propios principios, tejiendo la trama de todo lo que a él está ligado. En este sentido, mantiene sin modificación alguna todas las cosas que pueden conservarse conforme a su modelo inteligible, y lleva también a todas las demás allí donde lo exige su naturaleza. De modo que podemos decir que en el descenso de las almas ella es la causa  , precisamente, de que ocupen una u otra posición.

Bouillet

XV. En descendant du monde intelligible, les âmes viennent d’abord dans le ciel, et elles y prennent un corps au moyen duquel elles passent même dans des corps terrestres, selon qu’elles s’avancent plus ou moins loin [hors du monde intelligible]. Il en est qui vont du ciel dans des corps d’une nature inférieure; il en est aussi qui passent d’un corps dans un autre. Ces dernières n’ont plus la force de remonter au monde intelligible parce qu’elles ont oublié ; elles sont appesanties par le fardeau qu’elles traînent avec elles. Or les âmes diffèrent soit par les, corps auxquels elles sont unies, soit par leurs destinées diverses, soit par leur genre de vie, soit enfin par leur nature primitive. Différant ainsi les unes des autres sous tous ces rapports ou sous quelques-uns seulement, les âmes ou succombent ici-bas au Destin,’ou tantôt y sont soumises et tantôt s’en affranchissent, ou bien, tout en supportant ce qui est nécessaire, conservent la liberté de se livrer aux actes qui leur sont propres et vivent d’après une autre loi, d’après l’ordre qui régit tout l’univers. Cet ordre embrasse toutes les raisons [séminales] et toutes les causes, les mouvements des âmes 295 et les lois divines ; il est d’accord avec ces lois, il emprunte d’elles ses principes et relie à elles toutes les choses qui en sont les conséquences; il maintient impérissables toutes les essences qui peuvent se conserver elles-mêmes conformément à la constitution du monde intelligible; il conduit les autres êtres où les appelle leur nature, de telle sorte que, s’ils descendent ça ou là, il y a une cause qui leur assigne telle position, telle condition (92).

Guthrie

WHY MANY SOULS SUCCUMB TO THE LAW OF THE ORDER OF THE UNIVERSE.

15. On descending from the intelligible world, souls first come into heaven, and they there take a body by means of which they pass even into terrestrial bodies, according as they more or less advance (outside of the intelligible world). There are some who issue from heaven into the bodies of an inferior   nature; there are some also who pass from one body into another. The latter no longer have the power to reascend into the intelligible world because they have forgotten; they are weighted down by the burden they carry along with themselves. Now souls differ either by the bodies to which they are united, or by their different destinies, or by their kind of life, or by their primitive nature. Thus differing from each other in all these relations, or in only some, the souls here below either succumb to fate, or are alternately subjected to it, and liberated; or, while supporting what is necessary, preserve the liberty of devoting themselves to actions that are characteristic of them, and live according to some other law, following the order that rules the whole universe. This order embraces all the («seminal) reasons,» and all the causes, the movements of the souls, and the divine laws. It agrees with these laws, it borrows from them its principles, and relates thereto all things that are its consequences. It preserves in an imperishable condition all the beings which are able to preserve themselves conformably to the constitution of the intelligible world. It leads the other beings whither their nature calls them, so that whithersoever they may descend, there is a cause which assigns to them some particular position or condition.

Taylor

XV. Souls, therefore, fall from the intelligible world, in the first place indeed, into the heavens, and there receiving a body, they now proceed through it into more terrene bodies, so far as their progressions are more extended in length. And some of them indeed, proceed from the heavens into inferior bodies, but others pass from certain bodies into others; these being such as have not a power sufficient to raise themselves from hence, on account of the great weight and oblivion which they have attracted, and which draw them downward by their oppressive influence.

But souls become different from each other, either through the diversity into which they are introduced, or through the difference of their fortunes and educations; or again, they have a difference from themselves; or they differ in all these respects, or in some of them. And some of them, indeed, entirely fall under the dominion of the fate which is here; but others, at one time are subject to fate, and at another are dependent only on themselves. Others again grant that such things as are necessary must indeed be endured, but that such things as are their own works belong to themselves, and that living according to another legislation which comprehends in itself all beings, they give themselves to another more sacred law. This legislation, however, is a contexture consisting of all the reasons and causes that are here, of psychical motions and the laws derived from thence. It also accords with these, thence receives its principles, and weaves together with them whatever is of a consequent nature. And such things indeed, as are able to save themselves according to their proper habit, it preserves unshaken; but it conducts other things to that condition of being to which they are naturally adapted, so as to be the cause in their descent of the different situations of different things.

MacKenna

15. The souls peering forth from the Intellectual Realm descend first to the heavens and there put on a body; this becomes at once the medium   by which as they reach out more and more towards magnitude [physical extension] they proceed to bodies progressively more earthy. Some even plunge from heaven to the very lowest of corporeal forms; others pass, stage by stage, too feeble to lift towards the higher the burden they carry, weighed downwards by their heaviness and forgetfulness.

As for the differences among them, these are due to variation in the bodies entered, or to the accidents of life, or to upbringing, or to inherent peculiarities of temperament, or to all these influences together, or to specific combinations of them.

Then again some have fallen unreservedly into the power of the destiny ruling here: some yielding betimes are betimes too their own: there are those who, while they accept what must be borne, have the strength of self-mastery in all that is left to their own act; they have given themselves to another dispensation: they live by the code of the aggregate of beings, the code which is woven out of the Reason-Principles and all the other causes ruling in the kosmos  , out of soul-movements and out of laws springing in the Supreme; a code, therefore, consonant with those higher existences, founded upon them, linking their sequents back to them, keeping unshakeably true all that is capable of holding itself set towards the divine nature, and leading round by all appropriate means whatsoever is less natively apt.

In fine all diversity of condition in the lower spheres is determined by the descendent beings themselves.