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ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 27,14 (IV, 3, 14) — As almas são o ornamento do mundo

Enéada IV, 3, 14

sábado 2 de abril de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Cap 12-19: As almas humanas

  • Cap 12: Sua descida não é total mas cíclica
  • Cap 13: Sua descida obedece a uma lei
  • Cap 14: As almas são o ornamento do mundo
  • Cap 15 a 17: Os diferentes níveis de descida
  • Cap 18: O uso do raciocínio
  • Cap 19: Um comentário do Timeu   35a-b
    

Míguez

14. Este mundo nuestro se ilumina con muchas luces, adornado como está de muchas almas. Además de su primera ordenación, acoge en sí mismo   otros muchos mundos que provienen de los dioses inteligibles y de esas inteligencias que le dan las almas. Así es posible interpretar el mito   siguiente: Prometeo modeló una mujer, a la que los otros dioses llenaron de adornos; Afrodita y las Gracias aportaron algún don e, igualmente, cada uno de los demás dioses, por lo que muy justamente se la llamó Pandora  , de resultas de los dones recibidos y del hecho de que todos los habían dado(17). Porque todos los dioses, en efecto, dieron algo a este ser modelado por Prometeo y que es imagen de la providencia. Ahora bien, el que Prometeo rechace los dones de los dioses, ¿podrá significar que él escoge la vida intelectual como una vida mejor? El mismo, en realidad, se ve encadenado por esto, por mantenerse en contacto con la obra realizada. El lazo en cuestión proviene de fuera y la liberación es alcanzada por Hércules  , que tiene el poder de conseguir su rescate. Cualquiera que sea la interpretación que se dé al mito, se convendrá que significa el don divino de las almas introducidas en el mundo, lo cual está de acuerdo con nuestras afirmaciones.

Bouillet

XIV. Par là ce monde, qui déjà renferme beaucoup de lumières et qui est illuminé par des âmes, se trouve encore orné par les diverses beautés qu’il tient d’êtres divers (88); il reçoit ses beautés soit des dieux intelligibles, soit des autres intelligences qui lui donnent les âmes. C’est probablement ce qu’indiqué d’une façon allégorique le mythe suivant :

Prométhée ayant formé une femme (89), les autres dieux l’ornèrent; ce morceau d’argile, après avoir été pétri avec de l’eau  , fut doué de la voix humaine et reçut une forme semblable à celle des déesses ; puis Vénus, les Grâces et les autres dieux lui firent chacun un don. Aussi cette femme fut-elle appelée Pandore, parce qu’elle avait reçu des dons, et que tous les dieux lui avaient donné. Tous, en effet, firent un présent à ce morceau d’argile déjà façonné par une espèce de Providence (παρὰ προμηθείας (90) τινός). Si l’on dit 294 qu’Épiméthée rejette le don de Prométhée, n’est-ce pas pour indiquer qu’il vaut mieux vivre dans le monde intelligible (91) ? Quant au créateur de Pandore, il est lié, parce qu’il semble attaché à son œuvre. Mais cu d’une autre le mythe de Pandore, il est constant qu’il indique les dons que le monde a reçus, et sa signification est d’accord avec notre doctrine.

Guthrie

BY A PUN ON «WORLD» AND «ADORNMENT,» PLOTINOS   SHOWS MEN ADD TO THE BEAUTY OF THE WORLD.

14. That is how this world, which already contains many lights, and which is illuminated by souls, finds itself still further adorned by the various beauties derived from different beings. It receives beauties from the intelligible divinities and from the other intelligences which furnish it with souls. This is probably the allegorical intent of the following myth.

BY A PUN ON «PROMETHEUS  » AND «PROVIDENCE,» PLOTINOS EMPLOYS THE MYTH OF PANDORA.

(Following both Hesiod and the Gnostics, Plotinos relates that) a woman was formed by Prometheus, and adorned by the other divinities. This piece of clay, after having been kneaded with water, was endowed with a human voice, and received a form similar to the deities. Then Venus  , the Graces and the other deities each gave her a gift. That is why this woman was called Pandora, because (as her name implies, in Greek) she had received gifts, which had been given by all the divinities. All, in fact, made some present to this piece of clay already fashioned by some kind of providence («Prometheia,» or «Prometheus»). When Epimetheus rejects the gift of Prometheus, it only indicates that it is better to live in the intelligible world. The creator of Pandora, however, is bound because he seems attached to his work. But this bond is entirely exterior, and it is broken by Hercules, because the latter possesses a liberating power. Whatever other interpretation the myth of Pandora may receive, it must still signify gifts received by the world, and its import must agree with our teaching.

Taylor

XIV. These things, therefore, thus subsisting, this world having many lights, and being illustrated by souls, is adorned by other prior worlds, deriving a different gift from a different world; both from those Gods themselves, and from other intellects, through whom souls are imparted to the universe. And it is probable, that this is obscurely indicated by the fable, in which it is said that Prometheus having fashioned a woman, the other Gods also contributed to her embellishment. It is likewise said, that he mingled earth with water, and inserted the human voice; that he gave her a form resembling that of the Goddesses; that Venus and the Graces imparted something to her; and that a different divinity bestowed on her a different gift.

And lastly, that from the gift, and all the givers, she was called Pandora. For all the Gods gave something to this figment, which was produced by a certain providence.3 But what else is signified by Prometheus warning his brother   Epimetheus, not to accept the gift [Pandora], than that the choice of that which is in the intelligible, is more excellent [than of that which is in the sensible   world] ? The maker, however, Prometheus, was afterwards bound, because in a certain respect he comes into contact with the thing generated by him. A bond, also, of this kind is external, and the solution of it is by Hercules; because he possesses a liberating power. Of these things, however, any one may form whatever opinion he pleases. But it is evident that the gifts imparted to the world are indicated by this fable, and that it accords with what has been before said.

MacKenna

14. Thus it comes about that this kosmos  , lit with many lights, gleaming in its souls, receives still further graces, gifts from here and from there, from the gods of the Supreme, and from those other Intellectual-Principles whose nature it is to ensoul. This is probably the secret of the myth in which, after Prometheus had moulded woman, the other gods heaped gifts upon her, Hephaistos   «blending the clay with moisture and bestowing the human voice and the form of a goddess»; Aphrodite bringing her gifts, and the Graces theirs, and other gods other gifts, and finally calling her by the name [Pandora] which tells of gift and of all giving - for all have added something to this formation brought to being by a Promethean, a fore-thinking power. As for the rejection of Prometheus’ gift by after-thought, Epimetheus, what can this signify but that the wiser choice is to remain in the Intellectual realm? Pandora’s creator is fettered, to signify that he is in some sense held by his own creation; such a fettering is external and the release by Hercules tells that there is power in Prometheus, so that he need not remain in bonds.

Take the myth as we may, it is certainly such an account of the bestowal of gifts upon the kosmos as harmonizes with our explanation of the universal   system.