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Plotino - Tratado 26,17 (III, 6, 17) — Sequência do exame da grandeza material

Enéada III, 6, 17

segunda-feira 23 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 17: Sequência do exame da grandeza material

  • 1-10: A dimensão em si é animada do desejo de ser ela mesma, quer dizer grande. O sensível e a matéria desejam igualmente ser grandes
  • 10-12: A grandeza material é uma mentira
  • 12-16: Cada realidade sensível tem uma grandeza determinada. Toda a matéria se torna então grande
  • 16-21: O poder da forma determina a matéria
  • 21-37: As qualidades sensíveis são ilusões, homônimas como os inteligíveis. A matéria é e não é grande

Míguez

17. Tampoco podemos, decir que la materia sea la magnitud misma. Porque la magnitud es una forma y no un receptáculo. La magnitud se da en sí misma, por lo cual la materia no puede ser la magnitud. Mas, como la forma que yace en la inteligencia o en el alma quiere ser realmente grande, concede a los seres que quieren imitarla, y cuyo deseo y movimiento se dirigen hacia ella, que impriman su carácter propio sobre algo que es diferente. La magnitud, siguiendo el avance de la representación, corre también hacia la forma y hace correr consigo a lo que en la materia carece de magnitud; pero, al prolongar la materia, la hace que parezca grande, aunque no esté verdaderamente llena. Porque se trata de una falsa magnitud, ya que el ser grande no corresponde a la materia. Si ésta se prolonga, lo hará así por marchar paralela a la magnitud.

Todos los seres producen un reflejo sobre las otras cosas o sobre algo distinto a ellos. Cada uno de los seres es grande por sí mismo y su totalidad también lo es. Se da, pues, la coexistencia de la magnitud de cada razón, como por ejemplo la del caballo o de otro animal cualquiera, y la de la magnitud en sí. La reflexión del ser en su totalidad se hace grande por recibir la luz de la magnitud en sí, pero cada parte de ella tiene también cierta magnitud. Todas estas partes se aparecen a la vez como salidas de la forma total, en la que se incluye la magnitud, y de cada forma particular. Como ordenada a todo y a todas las cosas, la materia se ve forzada a ser en esta forma y con la masa que le dio la potencia por la que, sin ser nada, lo es todo. Porque así como el color que se aparece ante nosotros ha surgido de lo que no es color, así también la cualidad ha nacido de lo que no es cualidad, atribuyéndose aquí las causas, por homonimia, a los efectos. La magnitud, en este sentido, viene de lo que no es magnitud, o de lo que lo es por homonimia, pues las magnitudes están colocadas entre la materia y la forma. Digamos que se aparecen como provenientes de lo Inteligible, pero son algo engañoso, porque realmente no es aquello en lo que ellas aparecen. Cada cosa adquiere una magnitud, atraída como está por la fuerza de los modelos que en ella se reflejan y ocupan un lugar; y es atraída en todas direcciones, pero no violentamente, ya que es el universo la fuerza de atracción. Es él quien atrae todas las cosas, de acuerdo con su propia potencia, que recibe de lo inteligible. Y lo que hace grande a la materia -cosa verdaderamente aparente y que hay que atribuir a la imaginación-, esto mismo es algo imaginario, a saber, la magnitud de las cosas de aquí. La materia, con la que se ve forzada a coexistir la magnitud, se presenta toda ella a la vez y en todas partes. Porque es la materia de algo determinado, aunque ella misma no lo sea; y lo que no es determinado por sí mismo, puede llegar a ser, por medio de otro, lo contrario de lo que es, bien que no lo sea luego de haberse convertido en su contrario; porque, en otro caso, permanecería ya estático.

Bouillet

XVII. La matière n’est pas non plus la grandeur même : car la grandeur est une forme, et non un réceptacle ; elle existe par elle-même (91). La matière n’est donc pas encore grandeur sous ce rapport. Mais, comme ce qui existe dans l’Intelligence ou dans l’Ame a voulu devenir grand, il a donné aux choses qui veulent imiter la grandeur par leur aspiration ou leur mouvement la puissance d’imprimer à un autre objet une modification analogue à la leur. Ainsi, la grandeur, se développant dans la procession de l’Imagination (ἐν προόδῳ φαντάσεως), a entraîné avec elle la petitesse de la matière, l’a fait paraître grande en l’étendant avec elle-même, sans que cette extension l’ait remplie. La grandeur de la matière est une fausse grandeur, puisque, ne possédant pas par elle-même de grandeur, la matière a, en s’étendant avec la grandeur, partagé l’extension de celle-ci. En effet, comme tous les êtres intelligibles se reflètent, soit dans les autres choses en général, soit dans une d’elles en particulier, chacun d’eux étant grand, l’ensemble est grand de cette manière (92). Ainsi, la grandeur de chaque raison [essence] a constitué une grandeur particulière, un cheval, par exemple, ou un autre être (93). L’image formée par le reflet universel des êtres intelligibles (πᾶσα ἐνόπτρισις) est devenue une grandeur, parce qu’elle a été illuminée par la grandeur même. Chaque partie est devenue une grandeur particulière ; et toutes choses ensemble ont paru grandes par la vertu de la forme universelle à laquelle appartient la grandeur. Il y a eu ainsi extension de chaque chose vers chacune des autres et vers l’ensemble. Cette extension a été nécessairement dans la forme et dans la masse aussi grande que la puissance l’a faite en amenant ce qui n’est rien en réalité à être toutes choses en apparence. C’est de la même manière que la couleur, qui est née de la non-couleur, et la qualité, qui est née de la non-qualité, ont reçu ici-bas le même nom (ὁμωνυμία) (94) que les choses intelligibles [dont elles sont les images]. Il en est de même pour la grandeur, qui est née de la non-grandeur, ou du moins de la grandeur qui porte le même nom [que la grandeur intelligible].

Les choses sensibles occupent ainsi un rang intermédiaire entre la matière et la forme même (95). Elles apparaissent sans doute, parce qu’elles proviennent des essences intelligibles ; mais elles sont mensongères, parce que la matière dans laquelle elles apparaissent n’existe pas réellement (96). Chacune devient une grandeur, parce qu’elle est étendue par la puissance des êtres qui apparaissent ici-bas et qui s’y font un lieu (97). Il y a ainsi une extension produite en tous sens, et cela sans que la matière subisse aucune violence, parce qu’elle est toutes choses [en puissance]. Chaque chose produit son extension propre par la puissance qu’elle tient des êtres intelligibles. Ce qui rend la matière grande, c’est, ce semble, l’apparence de la grandeur, et cette apparence constitue précisément la grandeur d’ici-bas. La matière se prête tout entière partout à l’extension qu’elle est ainsi forcée de prendre par l’apparence universelle de la grandeur. En effet, la matière est par sa nature la matière de tout, et, par conséquent, elle n’est rien de déterminé. Or, ce qui n’est rien de déterminé par soi-même peut devenir le contraire [de ce qu’il est], et après être ainsi devenu le contraire, il n’est même pas encore réellement ce contraire, sinon, il aurait pour essence d’être ce contraire (98).

Guthrie

MAGNITUDE IS AN IMAGE FORMED BY THE UNIVERSAL REFLECTION OF UNIVERSAL BEINGS.

17. Neither is matter magnitude itself; for magnitude is a form, and not a residence; it exists by itself (for matter cannot even appropriate the images of beings). Not even in this respect, therefore, is matter magnitude. But as that which exists in intelligence or in the soul desired to acquire magnitude, it imparted to the things that desired to imitate magnitude by their aspiration or movement, the power to impress on some other object a modification analogous to their own. Thus magnitude, by developing in the procession of imagination, dragged along with itself the smallness of matter, made it seem large by extending it along with itself, without becoming filled by that extension. The magnitude of matter is a false magnitude, since matter does not by itself possess magnitude, and by extending itself along with magnitude, has shared the extension of the latter. Indeed as all intelligible beings are reflected, either in other things in general, or in one of them in particular, as each of them was large, the totality also is, in this manner, great (?). Thus the magnitude of each reason constituted a particular magnitude, as, for instance, a horse, or some other being. The image formed by the universal reflection of intelligible beings became a magnitude, because it was illuminated by magnitude itself. Every part of it became a special magnitude; and all things together seemed great by virtue of the universal form to which magnitude belongs. Thus occurred the extension of each thing towards each of the others, nd towards their totality. The amount of this extension in form and in mass necessarily depended on the power, that transformed what in reality was nothing to an appearance of being all things. In the same manner color, that arose out of what is not color, and quality, that arose out of what is not quality, here below were referred to by the same name as the intelligible entities (of which they are the images). The case is similar for magnitude, which arose out of that which has none, or at least out of that magnitude that bears the same name (as intelligible magnitude).

SENSE-OBJECTS APPEAR, AND ARE INTERMEDIARY BETWEEN FORM AND MATTER.

Sense-objects, therefore, occupy a rank intermediary between matter and form itself. They no doubt appear, because they are derived from intelligible entities; but they are deceptive, because the matter in which they apear does not really exist. Each of them becomes a magnitude, because it is extended through the power of the entities that appear here below, and which locate themselves here. Thus we have, in every direction, the production of an extension; and that without matter undergoing any violence, because (potentially) it is all things. Everything produces its own extension by the power it derives from the intelligible entities. What imparts magnitude to matter is the appearance of magnitude, and it is this appearance that forms our earthly magnitude. Matter yields itself everywhere entirely to the extension it thus, by the universal appearance of magnitude, is forced to take on. Indeed, by its nature, matter is the matter of everything, and consequently is nothing determinate. Now that which is nothing determinate by itself could become its opposite (of what it is), and even after thus having become its own opposite, it is not yet really this opposite; otherwise this opposite would be its nature.

Taylor

XVII. Neither, again, will matter be magnitude itself. For magnitude is form, but not the recipient of form ; and magnitude subsists by itself. If matter, likewise, cannot adapt to itself the imitations of beings, on this account also it is not magnitude. Since, however, that which is placed in intellect or in soul, wishes to be great, it imparts to those things which by proceeding as it were, endeavour to imitate it, by the desire of, or motion towards it, the ability of impressing the same passion in another thing. That which is great, therefore, running in the progression of the phantasy so as to cause the smallness of matter to run in conjunction with it, occasions matter also to appear great, though it is not filled by the co-extension. For this greatness of matter is falsely great, since by not having the power to be great, and being extended towards magnitude, it becomes amplified by the extension. For since all beings produce in other things, or in another thing the representation of themselves as in mirrors, each of the agents is in a similar manner great; and the universe also is great in this way. The magnitude, therefore, of each productive principle, as of that of a horse or any thing else concurs with the particular thing to which the productive principle pertains. And every appearance, indeed, of things as in a mirror is great in consequence of being illuminatjd by greatness itself. Each portion of them, likewise, becomes something great, and all things at once present themselves to the view from every form of which magnitude is one. From each form, also, there is, as it were, an extension to every thing and to all things, and this is to be compelled in form. Power, too, produces as much in bulk as bulk is capable of receiving; so that what is [in reality] nothing, appears to be all things. Hence colour which proceeds from what is not colour, and the quality in sensibles which is derived from what is not quahty, have an equivocal appellation from their producing causes. Magnitude, also, proceeds from that which is not magnitude, or from that which is hoinonymously magnitude ; these1 being surveyed as having a subsistence between matter itself, and form itself. And they become apparent, indeed, because they are derived from form themselves. They have, however, a false subsistence, because that in which they are apparent is not [truly]. But each of them becomes extended into magnitude, being attracted by the power of the things which are seen in matter, and which make for themselves a place. There is, however, an attraction to all things, yet not by violence, because the universe is matter. But each thing attracts according to the power which it possesses; and derives from the representation of magnitude itself, the ability of making matter so great as it appears to be. Hence the magnitude which is here is the phantasm of it which is apparent. Matter, however, being compelled to concur with this attraction, at once imparts itself wholly and every where ; for it is the matter of the iiniverse, and not some particular matter. But that which is not of itself some particular thing, may on account of something else become contrary to what it was, and having become contrary, no longer is [what is was]; since if it were, it would cease to be changed.

MacKenna

17. Nor can we, on the other hand, think that matter is simply Absolute Magnitude.

Magnitude is not, like Matter, a receptacle; it is an Ideal-Principle: it is a thing standing apart to itself, not some definite Mass. The fact is that the self-gathered content of the Intellectual Principle or of the All-Soul, desires expansion [and thereby engenders secondaries]: in its images - aspiring and moving towards it and eagerly imitating its act - is vested a similar power of reproducing their states in their own derivatives. The Magnitude latent in the expansive tendency of the Image-making phase [of Intellect or All-Soul] runs forth into the Absolute Magnitude of the Universe; this in turn enlists into the process the spurious magnitude of Matter: the content of the Supreme, thus, in virtue of its own prior extension enables Matter - which never possesses a content - to exhibit the appearance of Magnitude. It must be understood that spurious Magnitude consists in the fact that a thing [Matter] not possessing actual Magnitude strains towards it and has the extension of that straining. All that is Real Being gives forth a reflection of itself upon all else; every Reality, therefore, has Magnitude which by this process is communicated to the Universe.

The Magnitude inherent in each Ideal-Principle - that of a horse or of anything else - combines with Magnitude the Absolute with the result that, irradiated by that Absolute, Matter entire takes Magnitude and every particle of it becomes a mass; in this way, by virtue at once of the totality of Idea with its inherent magnitude and of each several specific Idea, all things appear under mass; Matter takes on what we conceive as extension; it is compelled to assume a relation to the All and, gathered under this Idea and under Mass, to be all things - in the degree in which the operating power can lead the really nothing to become all.

By the conditions of Manifestation, colour rises from non-colour [= from the colourless prototype of colour in the Ideal Realm]. Quality, known by the one name with its parallel in the sphere of Primals, rises, similarly, from non-quality: in precisely the same mode, the Magnitude appearing upon Matter rises from non-Magnitude or from that Primal which is known to us by the same name; so that material things become visible through standing midway between bare underlie and Pure Idea. All is perceptible by virtue of this origin in the Intellectual Sphere but all is falsity since the base in which the manifestation takes place is a non-existent.

Particular entities thus attain their Magnitude through being drawn out by the power of the Existents which mirror themselves and make space for themselves in them. And no violence is required to draw them into all the diversity of Shapes and Kinds because the phenomenal All exists by Matter [by Matter’s essential all-receptivity] and because each several Idea, moreover, draws Matter its own way by the power stored within itself, the power it holds from the Intellectual Realm. Matter is manifested in this sphere as Mass by the fact that it mirrors the Absolute Magnitude; Magnitude here is the reflection in the mirror. The Ideas meet all of necessity in Matter [the Ultimate of the emanatory progress]: and Matter, both as one total thing and in its entire scope, must submit itself, since it is the Material of the entire Here, not of any one determined thing: what is, in its own character, no determined thing may become determined by an outside force - though, in becoming thus determined, it does not become the definite thing in question, for thus it would lose its own characteristic indetermination.