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anthropos

domingo 17 de outubro de 2021

gr. ánthropos (ho): homem. Como espécie, oposto ao animal (oposto à mulher, diz-se anér; gen.: andrós). Em Aristóteles  , substância composta, na qual "a alma é causa e princípio do corpo vivo" (De an., II, 4  ), à qual se soma uma alma intelectual (ibid., III, 4  ,10,11). Em Plotino  , segundo Gandillac  , situado em posição mediana entre o bestial e o divino, mas possui uma atitude à visão unitiva.


ἄνθρωπος, « l’homme », — distingué de ses facultés (5, 29-30 ; 5, 31-33) ; associé à οὐσία (124) (7, 8) ; coïncidant avec « l’âme qui raisonne » (166) (7, 22) ; agent et patient du mal (9, 2) ; réincarné en bête (11, 13).

ό ἄνθρωπος ό ἀληθής, « l’homme véritable », inclus abusivement dans « l’animal » (64) (7, 20) ; distingué de la « bête » (77) ou du « corps animé » (144), sujet des vertus de la pure pensée (113) (10, 7).

ό ἐνδον ἄνθρωπος, distingué de «l’ensemble» (91), sujet de l’amitié (154) (10, 15). [Aubry  ; Tratado 53  ]


C’est-à-dire l’âme, puisque Plotin   fait ici une première allusion explicite à la définition platonicienne de l’Alcibiade : « – Donc, puisque ni le corps ni l’ensemble n’est l’homme, je crois qu’il reste que l’homme n’est rien ou bien, s’il est quelque chose, il faut reconnaître que ce ne peut être rien d’autre que l’âme. – Parfaitement. – Faut-il maintenant te prouver avec encore plus de clarté que l’âme est l’homme ? » (130c1-6, trad. C. Marbœuf et J.-F  . Pradeau  ). Plotino - Tratado 2,1 (IV,7,1) - somos inteira ou parcialmente imortais?
Αἴτιον (τοῦ εἶναι) ἐνυπάρχον, for example, ψυχή. The “soul” is οὐσία in the sense that it constitutes the being-there of the beings that have the character of living. A living thing has an entirely characteristic being-there: (a) It is there in the sense of the ὑποκείμενον; it is at hand as are stones, tables. (b) But the human being is not there in the path in the way that a stone is; rather, a human being goes for a stroll under the trees. I encounter a human being somewhere, but this, his being-there as occurring, as “world,” is characterized by the fact that his being-there is in the mode of being-in-the-world. It is by having an orientation. The human being is there in such a way that he is in the world, in the sense that he has his world; he has his world insofar as he knows his way around in it. Ψυχή, as a being-character, is distinguished by comprising in itself being as ὑποκείμενον. [Heidegger  , GA18  :34]
LÉXICO: ANTHROPOS