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phantasia

domingo 17 de outubro de 2021

gr. φαντασία, phantasía (he): imaginação, impressão. týpôsis: imprimir, impressão ver aisthesis, noesis. Faculdade da alma humana de criar imagens imanentes. Platão   emprega incidentemente essa palavra, ora no sentido de aparência (Deus é simples e não nos engana com simulacros, Rep.  , II, 382c), ora no sentido de faculdade imaginativa (imaginação e sensação são uma mesma coisa, Teeteto  , 152c). Aristóteles   a trata essencialmente como faculdade em De anima (III, 3  ) insistindo no fato de que ela é diferente da sensação (aísthesis) e do pensamento (diánoia): ela é "movimento nascido da sensação". Para Epicuro  , a phantasía é sempre verdadeira (Sexto Empírico, Adv. math., VII, 203). Os estoicos empregam a palavra phantasía em dois sentidos. Por um lado, é ela aparência (enganosa) que se opõe ao fenômeno (phainómenon), que é o fato normal (Epicteto  , Manual, I, 5  ).


The word phantasia (from which came our fantasy and fancy) is connected with the verb phainesthai, to appear. I believe that in the earlier ‘Hellenistic’ period ‘appearance’ brings out the meaning more often than any other translation, and this includes the appearance that something is the case. It is because appearance can take the form of imagination, or of entertaining mental images, that phantasia can also refer to those activities, or to the capacity for them. But, this chapter will suggest, in the centuries after Christ, as Platonism and Neopythagoreanism progressed, phantasia took on more and more roles of the imagination.

Plato   made phantasia into doxa with sense perception, Sophist 263E-264D; Republic   603A. Aristotle   distinguished doxa as calling for conviction (pistis) and hence reason(s) (logos). The Stoics offered the different distinction that judgment (krisis) and doxa involve giving the assent (sunkatathesis) of reason to the appearance. Alexander Stoicises, giving this as his view. [SorabjiPC1  :61]


It should then be obvious to anyone that the appearance (phantasia) is in the soul - both the first one that we call an opinion, and the one derived from it, which is no longer an opinion, but, based in the lower part, is a murky quasi-opinion and unevaluated appearance, like the activity inherent in so-called Nature, insomuch as it produces (as they say) each thing without appearance. [Plotinus   3.6 [26] 4 (18-23); SorabjiPC1  :62]
LÉXICO: fantasia; phantasia