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logos

domingo 17 de outubro de 2021

gr. λόγος, lógos = discurso, relato, razão, definição, faculdade racional, proporção, verbo, palavra. Latim: ratio. Razão, faculdade intelectual do homem, considerada como seu caráter específico; e todas as formas de sua atividade. O primeiro sentido de lógos (do verbo légein, falar) é fala, linguagem. Ora, a linguagem é a expressão do pensamento. O gr. rhema é também palavra, expressão vocal.


Λóγος [logos]: “speaking,” not in the sense of uttering a sound but speaking about something in a way that exhibits the about-which of speaking by showing that which is spoken about. The genuine function of the λóγος is the ἀποφαίνεσθαι [apophainesthai], the “bringing of a matter to sight.” Every speaking is, above all for the Greeks, a speaking to someone or with others, with oneself or to oneself. Speaking is in concrete being-there, where one does not exist alone, speaking with others about something. Speaking with others about something is, in each case, a speaking out of oneself. In speaking about something with others, I express myself (spreche ich mich aus), whether explicitly or not.

What is this λóγος? It is the fundamental determination of the being of the human being as such. The human being is seen by the Greeks as ζῷον λóγον ἔχον [zoon logon echon], not only philosophically but in concrete living: “a living thing that (as living) has language.” This definition should not be thought in biological, psychological, social-scientific, or any such terms. This determination lies before such distinctions. Ζωή is a concept of being; “life” refers to a mode of being, indeed a mode of being-in-a-world. A living thing is not simply at hand (vorhanden), but is in a world in that it has its world. An animal is not simply moving down the road, pushed along by some mechanism. It is in the world in the sense of having it. The being-in-the-world of the human being is determined in its ground through speaking. The fundamental mode of being in which the human being is in its world is in speaking with it, about it, of it. Thus is the human being determined precisely through the λóγος, and in this way you can see where, if definition is a λóγος, the matter of definition has its ground insofar as λóγος is the basic determination of the being of the human being. The λóγος as ὁρισμóς [horismos] addresses beings in their οὐσία [ousia], in their being-there. Therefore, we must gain an understanding of οὐσία. [HEIDEGGER  , GA18  :17-18]


Le terme de lógos a des significations multiples en grec et, particulièrement, chez Plotin   ; outre les sens de parole, discours, définition, faculté de raisonnement (autant de sens qui ne s’appliquent qu’à l’homme), les stoïciens avaient dégagé en chaque réalité une certaine cohésion rationnelle qui en maintient la structure : tel est le cas d’une semence qui préside à la croissance d’une plante. Ce lógos ou contenu objectivement rationnel « vient des dieux » selon la doctrine plotinienne de la procession ; les « dieux » sont les réalités parfaites non sensibles, les Formes intelligibles qui existent de toute éternité dans la pensée pure de l’Intellect. Dès lors la « communauté (koinōnía) qui explique la beauté des corps est proprement la participation (voir, supra, note 8, p. 82). Plotin   reviendra souvent sur la question des « raisons », ces contenus rationnels intermédiaires entre les Formes du monde intelligible et les corps vivants organisés « selon ces raisons » (être en bonne santé, par exemple, c’est être conforme au lógos de notre corps) : voir les traités 27, 28 et 29 (IV, 3  , 4 et 5), Difficultés relatives à l’âme et les traités 47 et 48 (III, 2   et 3), Sur la providence, ainsi que l’étude de L. Brisson  , « Logos et logoi chez Plotin   ». Plotino - Tratado 1 (I,6) - Sobre o belo (estrutura)
Le terme de « raison » (lógos) est employé ici en son sens technique (voir l’étude plusieurs fois citée de L. Brisson  ), comme le confirme la suite de l’argument. La « raison » désigne une forme intelligible pensée par l’âme qui, grâce à cette raison, peut constituer ou ordonner le sensible. Plotino - Tratado 2,4 (IV, 7, 4) — A alma não é nem sopro nem uma "maneira de ser"
LÉXICO: LOGOS