Página inicial > Medievo - Renascença > Ibn Arabi (SP) II: Dagli - mana (sentido)

Ibn Arabi (SP) II: Dagli - mana (sentido)

domingo 24 de abril de 2022

Fil-mana or bil-mana, meaning literally “in meaning” or “through meaning,” which is a crucial technical term in all of Islamic metaphysics. Generally mana is set opposite sūrah, or form. Chittick   comments, “. . . [T]he term ‘form’ normally calls to mind a second reality which the form manifests. X is the form of Y. This second reality is often called the “meaning” (mana) of the form.” (Sufi Path of Knowledge, p.ll) Chittick   has rendered it as “supersensory meaning” or “suprasensory reality” when it does not simply denote “meaning.” As a technical term a meaning is an essence that has no spatio-temporal dimension in itself. It is a formless entity in the sense that in itself it is extended neither statically (in space) nor dynamically (in time). A form, when considered in opposition to meaning, is an essence that does possess spatio-temporal dimensions. A form is a formal essence, and by definition is that which is extended in space and time. For example, mercy is not a sensorial quality, though it manifests in a mother through her behavior towards her child. No part of the mother’s physical makeup is mercy, nor are any of her actions themselves mercy; mercy is a meaning that is expressed through these formal entities. It is quite correct to think of the meaning as the spirit of the form. It is that formless something that is the inward reality of the outward form. In the world of forms these meanings could only appear in form. There are no forms that are not forms of some meaning: the two go together like finger and nail. This conception should not be confused with Aristotelian hylomorphism, in which form is an essence that actualizes a potentiality in matter. Form and meaning are both actualities; both the form and meaning of a thing have a real essence or what-it-is, unlike Aristotelian form and matter where matter represents only the potentiality for the existence of a form. To use the simple example of colors, we can say that green has a form, but green also means something. It conveys something that is within the object of our sight, but which touches our soul and not our eye. There is a green which we can point to and a green which we cannot. The first is the form (formal essence), the second the meaning (formless essence). The use of‘meaning’ is awkward at first but actually quite profound, because it evokes the symbolism of speech which is so important in Sufi writings. When we speak a sentence, that sentence has a form and a meaning. God is ever speaking the universe, and it appears to us as forms and meanings, separate yet inseparable. When a form manifests, God means something by that form, and when God means something He manifests it in form.

The word mana can also be used to refer to the inward faculties of man as opposed to his outward faculties. One’s ‘meaning’ hearing is the dimension of the Heart that forms the principle of one’s sensory hearing. It is one’s spiritual hearing. Often when Ibn Arabi   speaks of something occurring “in meaning” he means that it occurs in one’s soul as opposed to manifesting outwardly. The meaning is the inward reality out work in the outward, the formless in the form, the hidden in the apparent. I have tried to consistently translate mana as meaning, but on some occasions it appears as spir-itm or spirituallym, as opposed to spirit without the subscript which translates rūh.

Later in the Ringstones Ibn al-cArabī alludes to the distinction between sensory hearing and hearing in the realm of meaning. The latter is the non-corporeal principle of the former. Meaning is always inward in relationship to sense, which is outward. Considered in the first way, a meaning is a thing abstracted from things and exists wholly in the mind, while in the latter case a meaning is a concrete reality that is set in opposition to form. Form and meaning interweave and together comprise the objects of the world and hence the objects of our knowledge.

Ver online : IBN ARABI - FUSUS - SETH