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Accueil > Oriente > Extremo Oriente > Tao Te Ching > III - Agir — Não-Agir

Tao Te Ching

III - Agir — Não-Agir

Agir também consiste em não agir

jeudi 15 février 2018

Se superestimas os grandes homens,
as pessoas se tornam impotentes.
Se supervalorizas as posses,
as pessoas começam a roubar.
O Sábio lidera esvaziando a mente das pessoas
e satisfazendo sua essência,
enfraquecendo sua ambição
e fortalecendo sua determinação.
Ele ajuda as pessoas a perder tudo o que sabem,
tudo que desejam,
e cria confusão naqueles que pensam que sabem.
Pratique não fazer,
e tudo vai para seu devido lugar.

[Tradução da versão inglesa de Stephen Mitchell, eventualmente recorrendo a outras versões]

Stephen Mitchell

If you overesteem great men,
people become powerless.
If you overvalue possessions,
people begin to steal.
The Master leads by emptying people’s minds
and filling their cores,
by weakening their ambition
and toughening their resolve.
He helps people lose everything they know,
everything they desire,
and creates confusion
in those who think that they know.
Practice not-doing,
and everything will fall into place.

[MITCHELL, Stephen. Tao Te Ching. A New English Version. New York : HarperCollins, 2006]

Haven

Não exaltar os homens de valor,
a fim de que o povo não rivalize.
Não estimar os bens difíceis de adquirir,
a fim de que o povo não roube.
Não exibir o que provoca a cobiça,
a fim de que o coração do povo não se conturbe.
Por isso o Santo-Homem? tem por regra fazer o vazio? nos corações
e encher os estômagos.
Enfraquece as vontades e fortalece os ossos.
Faz com que o povo seja sem saber e sem desejos,
de modo que os que sabem não ousem agir?.
Pratica o Não-agir,
e assim nada há que não seja bem governado, certamente.

[HAVEN, Marc. Lao Tsé. Tao Te King. O Livro do Tao e sua Virtude. Tr. Marcos Martinho dos Santos. São Paulo : Attar Editorial, 1988]

Waley

If we stop looking for “persons of superior morality” (hsien) to put in power,
There will be no more jealousies among the people.
If we cease to set store by products that are hard to get,
There will be no more thieves.
If the people never see such things as excite desire,
Their hearts will remain placid and undisturbed.
Therefore the Sage rules
By emptying their hearts
And filling their hearts ?
Weakening their intelligence
And toughening their sinews
Ever striving to make the people knowledgeless and desireless.
Indeed he sees to it that if there be any who have knowledge?,
They dare not interfere.
Yet through his actionless activity? all things are duly regulated.

[WALEY, Arthur. The Way and Its Power : Lao Tzu’s Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought. New York : Grove Press, 1994]

Legge

Not to value and employ men of superior ability is the way to
keep the people from rivalry among themselves ; not to prize articles
which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming
thieves ; not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is
the way to keep their minds from disorder.

Therefore the sage, in the exercise of his government, empties
their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills, and strengthens
their bones.

He constantly (tries to) keep them without knowledge and without
desire, and where there are those who have knowledge, to keep them
from presuming to act (on it). When there is this abstinence from
action, good order is universal.

[LEGGE, James. Tao Te Ching. Rockville : Arc Manor, 2008]

Ames

Not promoting those of superior character
Will save the common people from becoming contentious.
Not prizing property that is hard to come by
Will save them from becoming thieves.
Not making a show of what might be desired
Will save them from becoming disgruntled.
It is for this reason that in the proper governing by the sages :
They empty the hearts-and-minds of the people and fill their stomachs,
They weaken their aspirations and strengthen their bones,
Ever teaching the common people to be unprincipled in their knowing (wuzhi)
And objectless in their desires (wuyu),
They keep the hawkers of knowledge at bay.
It is simply in doing things noncoercively (wuwei)8
That everything is governed properly.

[AMES, Roger & HALL, David. Dao De Jing. A Philosophical Translation. New York : Ballantine Books, 2010 (ebook)]

Wieger

A. Ne pas faire cas de l’habileté, aurait pour résultat que personne ne se pousserait plus. Ne pas priser les objets rares, aurait pour résultat que personne ne volerait plus. Ne rien montrer d’alléchant, aurait pour effet le repos des cœurs.

B. Aussi la politique des Sages consiste t elle à vider les esprits des hommes et à remplir leurs ventres, à affaiblir leur initiative et à fortifier leurs os. Leur soin constant, est de tenir le peuple dans l’ignorance? et l’apathie.

C. Ils font que les habiles gens n’osent pas agir. Car il n’est rien qui ne s’arrange, par la pratique du non agir.

[WIEGER, Léon. Les pères du système taoïste. Paris : Les Belles Lettres, 1950]

Duyvendak

En n’exaltant pas les hommes de talent, on obtient que le peuple ne lutte pas.

En ne prisant pas les biens d’acquisition difficile, on obtient que le peuple ne soit pas voleur.

En ne lui montrant pas ce qu’il pourrait convoiter, on obtient que le cœur du peuple ne soit pas troublé.

Voilà pourquoi le Saint, dans son gouvernement, vide le cœur (des hommes) et remplit leur ventre, affaiblit leur volonté et fortifie leurs os, de manière à obtenir constamment que le peuple soit sans savoir et sans désirs, et que ceux qui savent n’osent pas agir. Il pratique le Non agir, et alors il n’y a rien qui ne soit bien gouverné.

[DUYVENDAK, J. J.-L.. Tao Tö King, Le Livre de la Voie et de la Vertu. Adrien Maisonneuve, Paris, 1987]

Matgioi

III. — N’exalter pas les sages, c’est vouloir que les hommes ne luttent pas ; sans richesse, et avec la difficulté de s’enrichir, c’est vouloir que les hommes ne combattent pas pour leurs intérêts ; ne pas regarder les choses du désir et du sentiment, c’est vouloir que les hommes aient le cœur tranquille. Voici ce que l’homme parfait commande : cœur vide, beaux dehors ; faibles apparences, corps vigoureux. C’est vouloir que les hommes ne sachent ni ne désirent. C’est vouloir connaître agir, et ne pas aller jusqu’à agir. Agir consiste aussi à ne pas agir. Ainsi on n’est jamais sans agir.

[MATGIOI. La Voie rationnelle. Paris : Éditions Traditionnelles, 1941]


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