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ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 27,9 (IV, 3, 9) — As duas maneiras para a alma de entrar em um corpo

Enéada IV, 3, 9

quarta-feira 22 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    
  • 1. Introducción: dos clases de entrada (9, 1-12).
  • 2. Alma   del cosmos. Primera explicación (9, 12-51):
    • a) No hubo un tiempo en que el cosmos no estuviera animado, pero por razones didácticas cabe imaginar que la animación del cosmos tuvo un comienzo (9, 12-20).
    • b) Para poder proceder adelante, el Alma hubo de crearse un cuerpo (9, 20-29).
    • c) Resultado: el cosmos quedó convertido en una mansión hermosa y variada; creación e iluminación de la materia; el cuerpo del cosmos empapado de alma (9, 29-51). [IGAL  ]

Chapter 9 — Plotinus   here considers two senses in which the soul may be said to enter a body: passing from an aerial or fiery body to one of earth; and the initial entry from a totally bodiless state into body, which is what he proposes to deal with in particular. [DBEnneadIV  ]
    

Míguez

9. Habrá que investigar ahora cómo se introduce el alma   en el cuerpo, mejor dicho, cómo y de qué manera. Esto no puede menos de suscitar nuestra admiración y de estimular nuestra búsqueda. Porque de dos modos   puede entrar el alma en el cuerpo. En primer lugar, puede ocurrir que el alma se encuentre ya en un cuerpo y que deba pasar de un cuerpo aéreo o ígneo a un cuerpo terrestre; si se dice que no se da este paso es porque no está manifiesta la acción correspondiente. En segundo lugar, el alma puede pasar a un cuerpo sin haberse encontrado antes en otro; entonces, naturalmente, el alma entra, por primera vez, en comunicación con un cuerpo. Convendrá examinar en este caso con toda atención qué es realmente lo que experimenta el alma cuando, completamente pura de todo contacto con el cuerpo, entra en relación con la naturaleza corpórea.

Deberemos comenzar tal vez por el alma del universo  , o mejor será necesario que comencemos por ella. Pero convendrá pensar   que tanto la entrada del alma en el cuerpo como la acción de darle vida tiene para nosotros un fin ilustrativo y de esclarecimiento de nuestra mente  ; porque es claro que este universo nunca ha carecido de alma, ni ha podido existir en ningún momento, estando el alma ausente de él, ya que tampoco ha existido nunca una materia carente de orden. Podemos, sin embargo, imaginar estos términos separándoles mentalmente unos de otros, ya que es posible, en efecto, analizar todo compuesto valiéndonos del pensamiento y de la reflexión. La verdad queda planteada de este modo; caso de no existir un cuerpo, el alma no le precedería, puesto que no hay otro lugar en el que ella asiente por naturaleza. Si debe preceder, tendrá que engendrar un lugar para sí misma, esto es lo que llamamos un cuerpo. Ahora bien, el alma está en reposo y permanece en el Reposo en sí, semejante a una luz que se manifiesta en toda su fuerza, pero cuyo resplandor, una vez llegado a los últimos confines, se convierte en oscuridad; el alma que la ve y que, además, la ha originado, necesariamente ha de darle una forma, porque no sería justo que lo que es vecino del alma estuviese privado de la razón. Tendrá, pues, tanta parte en ella cuanta pueda recibir la oscuridad, comportándose así como una sombra en la sombra engendrada por el alma.

El mundo, que es como una mansión bella y variada, no está separado de su creador ni puede prescindir de la comunicación con él, sino que, muy al contrario, todo entero y en todas partes ha de ser digno de sus cuidados, con los cuales recibirá provecho en su ser y en su belleza, en la medida en que pueda participar en ellos. Con todo, nada perjudicial resultará para el ser que está sobre él, porque este ser que le dirige continúa permaneciendo en lo alto. En estas condiciones se encuentra el universo animado: dispone de un alma que no es suya, pero que está hecha para él. Esa alma realmente le domina, sin que él pueda a su vez dominarla; y, además, le posee, sin que él pueda poseerla a ella. Este mundo asienta en el alma que le sostiene y nada hay en él que no participe en esta alma; es como una red tendida en las aguas, que vive en ellas y no puede, sin embargo, hacerlas suyas. Pero, cuando la mar se extiende, también la red se extiende con ella en la medida que le es posible, ya que cada una de sus partes se encuentra precisamente allí donde debe estar. Del mismo modo, el alma es tan grande por naturaleza que puede abarcar en sí misma a toda la sustancia corpórea. Así, dondequiera que el cuerpo se encuentre, allí se encuentra ella; y si se diese el caso de no existir un cuerpo, en nada afectaría esto a la magnitud del alma, que seguiría siendo lo que es. El universo tiene también tal extensión que se encuentra allí donde se encuentre el alma; sus límites alcanzan precisamente hasta el lugar donde le preserve el alma. La sombra de ésta avanza, pues, tanto como la razón que proviene de ella. Y la razón, a su vez, produce una magnitud comparable a la que su forma quiso producir [1].

Bouillet

IX. Examinons maintenant comment il arrive que l’âme descende dans le corps, et de quelle manière ce fait a lieu : car il mérite aussi d’exciter notre étonnement et de provoquer notre attention [2].

Il y a pour l’âme deux manières d’entrer dans un corps. L’une a lieu quand l’âme, étant déjà dans un corps, subit une métensomatose (μετενσωμάτωσις), c’est-à-dire passe d’un corps aérien ou igné dans un corps terrestre, migration qu’on n’appelle pas ordinairement métensomatose, parce qu’on ne voit pas d’où l’âme vient ; l’autre manière a lieu quand l’âme passe de l’état incorporel dans un corps quel qu’il soit, et qu’elle entre ainsi pour la première fois en commerce avec un corps [3].

Il convient d’examiner ici ce qu’éprouvé dans ce dernier cas l’âme qui, pure jusque-là de tout commerce avec le corps, s’entoure pour la première fois d’une substance de cette nature. De plus, il est juste, ou plutôt, il est nécessaire que nous commencions par l’Âme universelle.

Si nous disons que l’Âme entre dans le corps de l’univers et vient l’animer, c’est simplement pour expliquer notre pensée plus clairement; la succession que nous établissons ainsi entre ses actes est purement verbale [4] : car il n’y a jamais eu de moment où l’univers ne fût pas animé, où son corps existât sans l’Âme, où la mati  ère subsistât sans avoir de forme [5]. Mais on peut séparer ces choses par la pensée et par la parole, parce que, dès qu’un objet est composé, il est toujours possible de l’analyser par la pensée et la parole. Voici ce qui est en réalité.

S’il n’y avait pas de corps, il ne pourrait y avoir pour l’Âme de procession, puisque le corps est le lieu naturel de son développement. Comme l’Âme doit s’étendre, elle engendrera un lieu qui la reçoive, par conséquent, elle engendrera le corps. Or, le repos de l’Âme se fortifiant dans le Repos même [6], l’Âme ressemble à une lumière immense qui s’affaiblit en s’éloignant de son foyer, de sorte qu’au terme de son rayonnement, il n’y a plus qu’une ombre ; mais, en regardant cette ombre, l’Âme lui a donné une forme dès l’origine. En effet, il ne convenait pas que ce qui approche de l’Âme ne participât en rien à la Raison [7]; aussi y a-t-il dans [la matière], cette ombre de l’Âme, une ombre de la Raison. L’univers est ainsi devenu une demeure belle et variée, que l’Âme universelle n’a pas privée de sa présence [8], sans cependant s’y incorporer; elle a jugé l’univers tout entier digne de ses soins, et elle lui a ainsi donné autant d’être et de beauté qu’il était capable d’en recevoir, sans d’ailleurs rien perdre elle-même, parce qu’elle l’administre en demeurant au-dessus de lui dans le monde intelligible. De cette manière, en l’animant, elle lui accorde sa présence sans devenir sa propriété ; elle le domine et le possède sans être dominée ni possédée par lui. L’univers est en effet dans l’Âme qui le contient, et il y participe tout entier : il y est comme un filet dans la mer, pénétré et enveloppé de tous côtés par la vie, sans pouvoir toutefois se l’approprier. Mais ce filet s’étend autant qu’il le peut avec la mer : car aucune de ses parties ne saurait être ailleurs qu’où elle est. Quant à l’Âme universelle, elle est immense de sa nature, parce qu’elle n’a pas une grandeur déterminée ; en sorte qu’elle embrasse par une seule et même puissance le corps entier du monde, et qu’elle est présente partout où il s’étend. Sans lui, elle n’aurait nul souci de procéder dans l’étendue : car elle est par elle-même tout ce qu’il est dans son essence d’être. Ainsi, la grandeur de l’univers est déterminée par celle du lieu où l’Âme est présente ; et son étendue a pour limites celles de l’espace dans lequel il est vivifié par elle. L’ombre de l’Âme a donc une étendue déterminée par celle de la Raison qui rayonne de ce foyer de lumière ; et, d’un autre côté, cette Raison devait produire une étendue telle que son essence lui commandait de la produire [9].

Guthrie

TWO KINDS OF TRANSMIGRATION.

9. Let us now examine how it happens that the soul descends into the body, and in what manner this occurs; for it is sufficiently astonishing and remarkable. For a soul, there are two kinds of entrance into a body. The first occurs when the soul, already dwelling in a body, undergoes a transmigration; that is, passes from an aerial or igneous body into a terrestrial body. This is not usually called a transmigration, because the condition from which the soul comes is not visible. The other kind occurs when the soul passes from an incorporeal condition into any kind of a body, and thus for the first time enters into relations with a body.

STUDY OF FIRST INCARNATION.

We must here examine what, in the latter case, is experienced by the soul which, till then pure from all dealings with the body, for the first time surrounds herself with that kind of a substance. Besides, it is not only just but even necessary for us to begin by a consideration of (this event in) the universal   Soul. To say that the Soul enters the body of the universe and comes to animate it, is no more than a statement made to clarify our thoughts; for the succession in her actions thus established is purely verbal. There never was a moment when the universe was not animated, when its body existed without the Soul, or when matter existed without form. But these things can be separated in thought and speech, since as soon as an object is formed, it is always possible to analyse it by thought and speech. That is the truth.

HOW THE UNIVERSE IS ANIMATED BY THE WORLD SOUL.

If there were no body, the soul could not have any procession, since the body is the natural locality of her development. As the soul must extend, she will beget a receiving locality, and will, consequently, produce the body. The soul’s rest is based, and depends for growth on (the intellectual category of) rest itself. The soul thus resembles an immense light which weakens as it becomes more distant from its source, so that at the extremity of its radiation  , it has become no more than an adumbration. However, the soul evidently gave a form to this adumbration from the very beginning of things. It was, indeed, by no means suitable that what approached the soul should in no way participate in reason; consequently there came to be an adumbration of reason in (matter), this adumbration being the soul. The universe thus became a beautiful and varied dwelling, which was not deprived of the presence of the universal Soul by her not totally incorporating within it. She judged that the whole universe was worthy of her care, and she thus gave it as much "being" and beauty as it was able to receive, without herself losing any of it, because she manages the world while herself remaining above it in the intelligible sphere. By so animating it, she thus grants it her presence, without becoming its property; she dominates it, and possesses it, without being, thereby, dominated or possessed. The universe, indeed, is in the containing Soul, and participates therein entirely. (The universe is in the Soul as is) a net in the sea, on all sides penetrated and enveloped by life, without ever being able to appropriate it. So far as it can, this net extends along with the sea, for none of its parts could be elsewhere than it is. Bv nature the universal Soul is immense, because her magnitude is not definite; so that by one and the same power she embraces the entire body of the world, and is present throughout the whole extension. Without it, the world-Soul would make no effort to proceed into extension, for by herself she is all that it is her nature to be. The magnitude of the universe therefore is determined by that of the location of the Soul; and the limits of its extent are those of the space within which it is animated by her. The extension of the adumbration of the Soul is therefore determined by that of the "reason" which radiates from this focus of light; and on the other hand, this "reason" was to produce such an extension as its nature urged it to produce.

Taylor

IX. The manner, however, in which the soul is ingenerated in the body, must be considered. For this is no less admirable, and no less deserves to be investigated. The mode, therefore, in which the soul enters into the body is twofold. For one of these modes takes place, when the soul being in one body changes it for another, and from an aerial [or fiery], becomes situated in a terrestrial body; which some do not call a transmigration, because that from which the insertion originates is immanifest. But the other mode is a transition from an incorporeal essence to any body whatever; which also will be the first communion of the soul with the body. It will be right, therefore, to consider respecting this communion, what the passion arising from this conjunction then is, when the soul being entirely pure from body, becomes surrounded with the nature of body. Let us, however, first consider how this is effected in the soul of the universe; for perhaps it is proper, or rather is necessary, to begin from hence. For it is requisite that we should explain its ingress into and animation of the body, for the sake of doctrine and perspicuity. Though there never was a time, therefore, in which this universe was not animated, and it is not possible for body to subsist if soul is absent, nor was matter ever unadorned, yet it is possible in conception and in words to separate these from each other. For by these we may analyze every composition. The truth then is as follows : If body had no existence, there would be no progressions of soul; since there is not any other place, where it is naturally adapted to be. If, however, soul intends to proceed, it will generate for itself a place, so that it will generate body. The stability of soul, however, being as it were corroborated in permanency itself, and soul also resembling the effulgence of a great light, a darkness was in the mean time generated in the very extremity of the light  , which soul perceiving, gave form to it, since it was likewise the cause of its subsistence. For it was not lawful for any thing proximate to soul, to be destitute of form. Hence, by this obscure nature which was generated by soul, that which is called obscure was received. [The universe] therefore, being generated like a certain beautiful and various edifice, is not separated from its maker [soul], nor yet is mingled with it; but the whole of it is every where considered by its artificer as deserving a providential attention. It is advantageous, therefore, both to its existence and its beauty, to participate as much as possible of its maker; and to the latter this participation is not injurious. For it governs, abiding on high. And the world is animated after such a manner, that it cannot with so much propriety be said to have a soul of its own, as to have a soul presiding over it; being subdued by, and not subduing it, and being possessed, and not possessing. For it lies1 in soul which sustains it, and no part of it is destitute of soul; being moistened with life, like a net in water  . It is not, however, able to become that in which it lies; but the sea [of soul] being now extended, the net is also co-extended with it. as far as it is able. For each of the parts is incapable of existing in any other situation than where each is placed. But soul is naturally so great, because it is without quantity. Hence every body is comprehended by one and the same thing. And wherever body is extended, there also soul is. Unless, however, body existed, the attention of soul would not be at all directed to magnitude. For it is of itself that which it is. For the world is so greatly extended, through soul being present with the whole of it. And the extension of the world is bounded, so far as in its progression it has soul for its saviour. The magnitude of the shadow, likewise, is as great as the reason [or productive principle] which is suspended from soul. But the reason was of such a kind as to be able to produce as great a magnitude as the form of it wished might be produced.

MacKenna

9. But we must examine how soul comes to inhabit the body - the manner and the process - a question certainly of no minor interest.

The entry of soul into body takes place under two forms.

Firstly, there is the entry - metensomatosis - of a soul present in body by change from one [wholly material] frame to another or the entry - not known as metensomatosis, since the nature of the earlier habitacle is not certainly definable - of a soul leaving an aerial or fiery body for one of earth.

Secondly, there is the entry from the wholly bodiless into any kind of body; this is the earliest form of any dealing between body and soul, and this entry especially demands investigation.

What then can be thought to have happened when soul, utterly clean from body, first comes into commerce with the bodily nature?

It is reasonable, necessary even, to begin with the Soul of the All. Notice that if we are to explain and to be clear, we are obliged to use such words as "entry" and "ensoulment," though never was this All unensouled, never did body subsist with soul away, never was there Matter unelaborate; we separate, the better to understand; there is nothing illegitimate in the verbal and mental sundering of things which must in fact be co-existent.

The true doctrine may be stated as follows:

In the absence of body, soul could not have gone forth, since there is no other place to which its nature would allow it to descend. Since go forth it must, it will generate a place for itself; at once body, also, exists.

While the Soul [as an eternal, a Divine Being] is at rest - in rest firmly based on Repose, the Absolute - yet, as we may put it, that huge illumination of the Supreme pouring outwards comes at last to the extreme bourne of its light and dwindles to darkness; this darkness, now lying there beneath, the soul sees and by seeing brings to shape; for in the law of things this ultimate depth, neighbouring with soul, may not go void of whatsoever degree of that Reason-Principle it can absorb, the dimmed reason of reality at its faintest.

Imagine that a stately and varied mansion has been built; it has never been abandoned by its Architect, who, yet, is not tied down to it; he has judged it worthy in all its length and breadth of all the care that can serve to its Being - as far as it can share in Being - or to its beauty, but a care without burden to its director, who never descends, but presides over it from above: this gives the degree in which the kosmos   is ensouled, not by a soul belonging to it, but by one present to it; it is mastered not master; not possessor but possessed. The soul bears it up, and it lies within, no fragment of it unsharing.

The kosmos is like a net which takes all its life, as far as ever it stretches, from being wet in the water, and has no act of its own; the sea rolls away and the net with it, precisely to the full of its scope, for no mesh of it can strain beyond its set place: the soul is of so far-reaching a nature - a thing unbounded - as to embrace the entire body of the All in the one extension; so far as the universe extends, there soul is; and if the universe had no existence, the extent of soul would be the same; it is eternally what it is. The universe spreads as broad as the presence of soul; the bound of its expansion is the point at which, in its downward egression from the Supreme, it still has soul to bind it in one: it is a shadow as broad as the Reason-Principle proceeding from soul; and that Reason-Principle is of scope to generate a kosmic bulk as vast as lay in the purposes of the Idea   [the Divine forming power] which it conveys.


Ver online : ENÉADAS III-IV (Gredos)


[1A través de todo el capítulo se advierte muy bien, no sólo el sentido cosmológico de la teoría de Plotino, sino de modo especial lo que él mismo piensa e imagina sobre la acción del alma. Según se deduce del razonamiento de Plotino, el cuerpo o la materia existen porque el alma necesariamente les precede. La materia, diríamos mejor, es como un límite de la acción del alma; a ella se debe tan naturalmente como la oscuridad a la luz, pues el resplandor de la luz también se convierte en oscuridad una vez llegado a sus últimos confínes.

[2DEUXIÈME QUESTION : Pour quelle cause et de quelle manière l’âme descend-elle dans le corps (§ 9-17) ? Voy. ci-après le livre VIII qui a été composé avant celui-ci.

[3Voy. ci-après §15.

[4Voy. ce que Plotin dit ci-dessus sur les mythes.

[6Le Repos appartient à l’Intelligence et constitue un des Genres de l’être, selon Plotin.

[7Voy. ci-après, § 10.

[9Voy. ci-dessus Enn. III, liv.vi, § 16, 17.