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ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 52,1 (II, 3, 1) — Apresentação da doutrina astrológica

Enéada II, 3, 1

quinta-feira 20 de janeiro de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

      
  • Cap. 1, 1-6: Introdução: os astros anunciam tudo, mas eles não produzem tudo.
  • Cap. 1, 6-28: Apresentação da doutrina astrológica.
      

Míguez

1. Hemos dicho ya en otro lugar que el movimiento de los astros anuncia los acontecimientos futuros, pero que no los produce, como cree la mayoría. En este sentido, un tratado anterior   dio pruebas de ello. La cuestión exige, sin embargo, más precisiones, y hemos de hablar con más pormenor y exactitud; porque no es de despreciar la opinión que se tenga sobre este punto.

Dícese que el movimiento de los planetas produce no solamente la pobreta y la riqueza  , la salud y la enfermedad, sino también la fealdad y su contrario la belleza, así como lo que resulta más importante, los vicios y las virtudes y todas las acciones que en cada momento dependen de ellos. Parece como si los planetas manifestasen su irritación contra los hombres por hechos de los cuales los hombres no son culpables; pues es bien sabido que las disposiciones de éstos son preparadas por los astros. Si nos proporcionan lo que nosotros llamamos bienes, no es realmente porque estimen a quienes los reciben, sino porque así están dispuestos, en buena o en mala forma, según las regiones de lo alto que ocupan; sus propósitos   serán unos si están situados en los centros, y serán otros muy distintos si están inclinados hacia algo. Y aún se dice más: que algunos de los planetas son buenos y que otros, en cambio, son malos; pero que, con todo, los planetas malos pueden otorgamos bienes, y los buenos hacerse a la vez malos. Por añadidura, los efectos que produzcan serán unos si esos planetas se contemplan unos a otros, y de naturaleza muy distinta si dicha contemplación no tiene lugar; esto es, que dependerán, no de sí mismos, sino del hecho de que miren o no a otros. En el caso de que miren hacia un planeta   podrán traemos un bien, pero en el caso de que miren hacia oto podrán transformarse y cambiar. Miran de una u otra manera según el aire que ellos mismos adopten. Y, por otra parte, la mezcla de todos los planetas produce, un efecto diferente del que produciría cada uno   de entre ellos, a la manera cómo la mezcla de líquidos diferentes produce también un nuevo líquido que no dice relación con cada uno de los mezclados.

Siendo éstas y otras por el estilo las opiniones que se formulan, conviene que nos detengamos en cada caso. Y he aquí cuál deberá ser nuestro comienzo.

Bouillet

[I] Nous avons déjà dit ailleurs que le cours des astres indique (σημαινει) ce qui doit arriver à chaque être, mais qu’il ne produit pas tout (οὐ πάντα ποιεῖ), comme beaucoup de personnes le pensent. Aux raisons que nous avons déjà données à l’appui de notre assertion, nous allons joindre des preuves plus précises et de nouveaux développements; car l’opinion qu’on a sur cette question n’est pas sans importance.

Il est des gens qui prétendent que les planètes par leurs mouvements produisent non seulement la pauvreté et la richesse, la santé et la maladie, mais encore la beauté ou la laideur, bien plus, les vices et les vertus. Selon eux, ces astres à chaque instant, comme s’ils étaient irrités contre les hommes, leur font faire des actes dans lesquels ceux-ci n’ont rien à se reprocher, puisque c’est par l’influence des planètes qu’ils sont portés à ces actes. On ajoute que, si les planètes nous font du bien ou du mal, ce n’est pas qu’elles nous aiment ou qu’elles nous haïssent, c’est qu’elles sont bien ou mal disposées pour nous par la nature des lieux qu’elles parcourent. Elles changent de sentiment à notre égard selon qu’elles sont sur des points ou qu’elles déclinent (ἐπὶ κέντρων ὄν  τες ἢ ἀποκλίνοντες). Il y a plus : on prétend que certains astres sont malfaisants, que d’autres sont bienfaisants, et que cependant les premiers nous accordent souvent des bienfaits, tandis que les seconds deviennent souvent nuisibles. On dit qu’ils produisent des effets différents selon qu’ils se regardent (ἀλλήλους ἰδόντες) [1] ou ne se regardent pas, comme s’ils ne s’appartenaient pas à eux-mêmes et qu’ils fussent tels ou tels selon qu’ils se regardent ou qu’ils ne se regardent pas. Un astre est bon quand il regarde celui-ci, et il change quand il regarde celui-là. Il regarde de telle ou telle manière (ἀλλως ὁρᾷ) [2] quand il est dans tel ou tel aspect (εἰ κατὰ σχῆμα   τόδε ἡ ὄψις  ). [3] Enfin tous les astres ensemble exercent une influence mêlée qui diffère de l’influence propre à chacun d’eux, comme plusieurs liqueurs forment un mélange qui possède d’autres qualités que chacune d’elles. [4] En présence de ces assertions et d’autres de même espèce, il importe d’examiner chacune avec soin. Voici comment il nous semble convenable de commencer.

Guthrie

OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE STARS.

1. It has been said that the course of the stars indicates what is to happen to each being; though, it does not, as many persons think, cause every event. To the supporting proofs hereof we are to add now more precise demonstrations, and new considerations, for the opinion held about this matter is no trifle.

VARIOUS PRETENSIONS OF ASTROLOGY.

Some people hold that, by their movements, the planets produce not only poverty and wealth, health and sickness, but even beauty and ugliness; and, what is more, vices and virtues. At every moment the stars, as if they were irritated against men, (are said to) force them to commit actions concerning which no blame attaches to the men who commit them, since they are compelled thereto by the influence of the planets. It is even believed that the cause of the planets’ doing us evil or good is not that they love or hate us; but that their dispositions towards us is good or evil according to the localities through which they travel. Towards us they change their disposition according as they are on the cardinal points or in declination therefrom. It is even held that while certain stars are maleficent, others are beneficent, and., that, nevertheless, the former frequently grant us benefits, while the latter often become harmful. Their effects differ according to their being in opposition, just as if they were not self-sufficient, and as if their quality depended on whether or not they looked at each other. Thus a star’s (influence) may be good so long as it regards another, and evil when it does so no longer. A star may even consider another in different manners, when it is in such or such an aspect. Moreover, the totality of the stars exercises a mingled influence which differs from the individual influences, just as several liquors may form a compound possessing qualities differing from either of the component elements. As these and similar assertions are freely made, it becomes important to examine each one separately. This would form a proper beginning for our investigation.

MacKenna

1. That the circuit of the stars indicates definite events to come but without being the cause direct of all that happens, has been elsewhere affirmed, and proved by some modicum of argument: but the subject demands more precise and detailed investigation for to take the one view rather than the other is of no small moment.

The belief is that the planets in their courses actually produce not merely such conditions as poverty, wealth, health and sickness but even ugliness and beauty and, gravest of all, vices and virtue and the very acts that spring from these qualities, the definite doings of each moment of virtue or vice. We are to suppose the stars to be annoyed with men - and upon matters in which men, moulded to what they are by the stars themselves, can surely do them no wrong.

They will be distributing what pass for their good gifts, not out of kindness towards the recipients but as they themselves are affected pleasantly or disagreeably at the various points of their course; so that they must be supposed to change their plans as they stand at their zeniths or are declining.

More absurdly still, some of them are supposed to be malicious and others to be helpful, and yet the evil stars will bestow favours and the benevolent act harshly: further, their action alters as they see each other or not, so that, after all, they possess no definite nature but vary according to their angles of aspect; a star is kindly when it sees one of its fellows but changes at sight of another: and there is even a distinction to be made in the seeing as it occurs in this figure or in that. Lastly, all acting together, the fused influence is different again from that of each single star, just as the blending of distinct fluids gives a mixture unlike any of them.

Since these opinions and others of the same order are prevalent, it will be well   to examine them carefully one by one, beginning with the fundamental question:


Ver online : ENÉADAS I-II (Gredos)


Nota de Guthrie: We notice how these latter studies of Plotinos do not take up any new problems, chiefly reviewing subjects touched on before. This accounts for Porphyry’s attempt to group the Plotinic writings, systematically. This reminds us of the suggestion in the Biography, that except for the objections of Porphyry, Plotinos would have nothing to write. Notice also the system of the last Porphyrian treatises, contrasted with the more literary treatment of the later. All this supports Porphyry’s table of chronological arrangement of the studies of Plotinos. This book is closely connected with the preceding studies of Fate and Providence, iii. 1-3; for he is here really opposing not the Gnostics he antagonized when dismissing Amelius, but the Stoic theories on Providence and Fate.


[1Macrobe, In Somn. Scipionis: « ut Mars adspiciat ad lunam. »

[2Cicéron, De divinatione, I, 39: « Quid astrologus habet cur stella Jovis, aut Veneris, conjuncta cum Luna ad ortus puerorum salutaris sit, Saturni Martisve contraria? »

[3On nomme aspect la position de deux planètes l’une par rapport à l’autre: elles peuvent être, soit en conjonction, soit en opposition, soit en aspect trine, τρίγωνος (à la distance de quatre signes du zodiaque), soit en quadrat, τετράγωνος (à la distance de trois signes).

[4Julius Firmicus, Astrol., II, 23: « Si benevolae et malevolae stellae pari radiatione respexerint, etc. »