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domingo 17 de outubro de 2021

A culminância da dialética plotiniana é a união mística com o Uno, numa contemplação extática, segundo foi exposto, com maior profundidade, no capítulo anterior. Henosis é a palavra grega para designar essa união. No caminho da "conversão", que caracteriza o itinerário da "inteligência espiritual" no homem, Plotino   aponta para além da intelecção, para a pura intuição do Uno, que é simples e sem alteridade. Aqui, a alma prescinde de toda razão discursiva e de toda ciência. Trata-se de um estado hiper-racional, que tem como um dos momentos preparatórios a reflexão, a virtude, a ascese.

O que significa união mística? Uma co-presença com o divino, atemporal, em que a alma entra na posse e unidade máxima de si mesma, para alcançar a similitude com o Uno (homoiosis to Theo). Pela henosis, é superada a distância entre a alma pura e a divindade e alcança-se a perfeita unificação com Deus já nesta vida. [Ullmann  ]


Admittedly, Proclus   later disagreed with Plotinus  ’ view (in Farm. 948,14-20) because he took it to be allied with Plotinus  ’ belief that part of our soul never ceases its unconscious contemplation of the intelligible Forms. But Proclus   in Ale. 1 5,13-14, following Iamblichus   ap. Proclum in Ale. 1 11,11-17, and like the Anonymous Prolegomena to Platonic Philosophy ch. 26, holds that the starting point for Plato   and the whole of Philosophy must be the Delphic saying ‘know thyself’, studied in Plato  ’s First Alcibiades  . This fits with Plotinus  ’ insistence, which influenced Augustine  , that we must look for the chief levels of reality, the Intellect and the One, within ourselves, 1.6 [1] 9 (8); 5.8 [31] 10 (31-43); 6.9 [9] 7 (16-23). Plotinus  ’ most famous autobiographical account of his experience of union with the Intellect in 4.8 [6] 1 (1-11) starts by saying that he has often withdrawn from everything else into himself. Even the phenomenological character of the experience is taken to indicate how things really are. There is not merely a sense of timelessness; the Intellect, and one’s self as united with it, are really timeless, 3.7 [45] 11. There is not merely a loss of sense of where one’s own boundary stops and that of Intellect or the One begins, 6.5 [23] 7 (14-17); there is genuine union. Plotinus   holds more generally that the source from which something stems is within it, and he applies this to the hypostasis Intellect: Tor in turning back (epistrephein) on itself, [Intellect] turns back on its source’ (Plotinus   6.9 [9] 2 (35-6)).

Cary (Phillip Cary, Augustine  ’s Invention of the Inner Self, Oxford 2000, ch. 3) has argued for Augustine  ’s invention of the Inner Self, and has distinguished Augustine   from Plotinus   as inviting us to look not only in ourselves for God, but first in and then up. But not only does Plotinus   also recognise more than one level. (The characteristic ratiocinative self is below the intellect of soul, which is a higher self; there are many levels of self; the human Intellect is in turn derived from the divine hypostasis Intellect; the One is beyond Intellect again). But more importantly, Plotinus   puts more into the inner world than Augustine  , since he locates everything divine within. Only the sensible world remains outside. [SorabjiPC3  :13]


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