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soma

domingo 17 de outubro de 2021

gr. σῶμα, sôma (tó) = corpo. Latim: corpus. Plural: gr. σώματα, sômata / somata. Latim: corpora. Realidade sensível (tò aisthetón) oposta à realidade inteligível (tò noetón).


Em Homero  , soma designa sempre o corpo morto, animal ou humano. A extensão do termo a toda realidade material e sólida vai de par com a espiritualização da psyche; a perspectiva dualista, de origem órfico-pitagórica, permite o jogo de palavras soma/sema: o corpo é o túmulo da alma que lhe preexiste e lhe sobrevive (Crátilo   400 e Górgias   493). Entretanto se o corpo é o que aprisiona, é também o que exprime, sema designando todo sinal de uma presença que sem ele permaneceria imperceptível e não identificada. [Notions philosophiques  ]
If we translate σῶμα as “body,” we must note that corporeality for the Greeks does not mean materiality or having-the-character-of-stuff. Rather, σῶμα means a characteristic obtrusiveness of a being, of a being that is there, such that later τὸ σὸν σῶμα, “your σῶμα,” is the same as σύ; and later σῶμα means “slave,” “prisoner,” a being that belongs to me, that is at my disposal, what is there for me in this obtrusiveness and self-evidence. This meaning is to be heard also. Such σώματα are, accordingly, not only bodily things but also animals, trees, earth, water, air, τὰ φυσικά, and even the οὐρανóς; not only dead things but beings that, initially and for the most part, are there in the everydayness of life. Aristotle   says of these beings that to him δοκεῖ ἡ οὐσία ὑπάρχειν φανερώτατα; directly and initially the οὐσία shows itself therein. Whether there is yet another kind of being that would qualify as οὐσία is an open question. Οὐσίαι [ . . . ] ὁμολογούμεναι: Each says the same as another, without qualification, namely, that these beings are. These beings are addressed in the genuine sense as beings in the self-evidence of natural being-there. [Heidegger  , GA18  :28]
LÉXICO: SOMA