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Accueil > Oriente > Dyczkowski : Shaiva Idealism

Dyczkowski : Shaiva Idealism

samedi 10 mars 2018

Interiority (antaratva) is the keynote of both Kashmiri Śaiva metaphysics and practice : it is a ‘doctrine which maintains that everything is internal’ (antarārthavāda). Everything, according to this view, resides within one absolute? consciousness. It is the great abode of the universe. Full (pūrna) of all things, it sustains them all and embraces them within its infinite, all-pervasive nature?. Utpaladeva? writes :

O Lord, some, greatly troubled, move perplexed (bhramanti) within themselves while others, well established [in themselves], wander in that which is their own Self alone.

All events are consciously experienced happenings. According to Somānanda, only that which hypothetically exists outside consciousness can be said to be non-existent (avastu) and hence false. Daily life carried [47] on without knowledge? that everything is manifest within consciousness is illusory or unreal in that sense alone. Things are more real or more tangibly experienced according to their own essential nature (svabhāva) to the degree in which we recognise that they are appearances (ābhāsa?) within absolute consciousness. As Jayaratha says :

Just as images manifest in a mirror, for example, are essentially mere appearances, so too are [phenomena?] manifest within consciousness. Thus, beause they are external, [phenomena] have no being (sattva?) of their own. The Lord says this [not with the intention of saying anything about the nature of things] but in order to raise the level of consciousness of those people who are attached to outer things ; thus everything in this sense is essentially a mere appearance. [Knowing this], in order to quell the delusion of duality, one should not be attached to anything external.

The ultimate experience is the realisation that everything is contained within consciousness. We can discover this in two ways. Either we merge the external world? into the inner subject, or we look upon the outer as a gross form of the inner. In these two ways we come to recognise that all things reside within our own consciousness just as consciousness resides within them.

This all-embracing inwardness is only possible if there is an essential identity between the universe and consciousness. The events which constitute the universe are always internal events happening within consciousness because their essential nature is consciousness itself. We can only account for the fact that things appear if there is an essential identity between consciousness and the object? perceived. If a physical object were really totally material, that is, part of a reality independent of, and external to, consciousness, it could never be experienced. Abhinava says :

The existence? or non-existence of phenomena within the domain of the empirical (iha) cannot be established unless they rest within consciousness. In fact, phenomena which rest within consciousness are apparent (prakāśamāna). And the fact of their appearing is itself their oneness (abhecla) with consciousness because consciousness is nothing but the fact of appearing (prakāśa?). If one were to say that they were separate from the light of [that consciousness] and that they appeared [it would be tantamount to saying that] ‘blue’ is separate from its own nature. However, [insofar as it appears and is known as such] one says : ‘this is blue’. Thus, in this sense, [phenomena] rest in consciousness ; they are not separate from consciousness.

Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI