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Accueil > Oriente > Dyczkowski : Unity and Diversity

Dyczkowski : Unity and Diversity

vendredi 9 mars 2018

The one reality is manifest both as unity and diversity. There can [42] be no real unity unless diverse elements are united in the wholeness of totality. On the other hand, without unity, diversity would be unintelligible. A total dispersion of elements does not constitute diversity but a number of single, unrelated units. Just as everything that falls into a salt mine becomes salty, so all this diversity, grounded in unity, shares in the single flavour of oneness. There is an undeniable difference between individual phenomena?, but the distinction we perceive between two entities which leads us to think that one differs from the other is merely external. Relative distinction is not an inherent quality of things that can divide their innate nature?, not because this division (bheda) is in any way unreal, but because it operates within the domain of the real, which appears as phenomenally manifest. Division (bheda) is merely the relative distinction between two manifest entities ; it is based on the difference between their manifest form.

“Relative distinction between two realities (tattva),” writes Abhinava Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta (950-1020), maître du shivaïsme du Cachemire, aussi maître en yoga, tantra, poétique, dramaturgie.
, “is not impossible. This is the doctrine of Supreme Unity in which relative distinction is neither shunned nor accepted. While there is [an external] difference between phenomena, there is none [inwardly], established as they are in their own essential nature.”

Reality is the One (eka) which becomes manifest as the many (bahu). Universal Being moves between two poles, viz., diversification of the one and unification of the many. Thought (vikalpa) interferes with our direct intuitive understanding of this fact and splits up the two aspects of this movement into separate categories. Reality is a structured whole consisting of a graded hierarchy (tāratamya) of metaphysical principles corresponding to the planes of existence? (daśā). On the lowest planes up to the level of Māyā, we experience division (bheda) between objects and ourselves ; at the highest level we reach the plane of unity (abheda) which pervades and contains within itself all the others. Maheśvarānanda writes :

We maintain that the basis of duality (bheda) in the [empirical] universe is a phase (vibhāga) [of reality] ! The separation between things is certainly not adventitious (upādhi) for then they [i.e., the object? and its separatedness] being two, unity would stand contradicted.

He goes on to say :

The various categories of existence (padārtha), though distinct from one another in their [outer form] must be, in terms of their essential specific nature, a single collective reality.

Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI