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Dyczkowski : God

vendredi 9 mars 2018

Both dynamic and creative, this divine power is Spanda—the vibration of consciousness. Its universal activity? is the basis of Siva’s divine sovereign status. Indeed, Spanda is Siva’s most essential nature? for without it He would not be God. As Kşemarāja says :

Thus God (bhagavat) is always the Spanda principle with its dependent categories — He is not motionless (aspanda) as those who say, ‘the supreme reality is perfectly inactive (aspanda)’. If that were so, His nature would be a self-confined stasis (śāntasvarūpa) and so He would not be God at all.

The supreme reality which is ‘perfectly inactive’ is like the Vedāntin’s Brahman?. Although the Vedāntin says that ‘God alone is the source of all things’, Brahman cannot be a creator God (īśvara) for His supposed creation is unreal. A creator implies that His creation is a separate reality and this would contravene the fundamental principles on which Advaita? Vedānta bases its concept of non-duality. Accordingly, Śañkara says :

God’s rulership, omniscience and omnipotence are contingent to limiting adjuncts conjured up by nescience : in reality such terms as ruler and ruled, omniscience etc., cannot be used with regard to the Self shining in its own nature.

[46] Kashmiri Śaivism, on the contrary, believes in a personal absolute? God Who is the one reality (īśvarādvayavāda). The planes within the absolute correspond to a hierarchy of deities which rule over them, empowered to do so by the Supreme Deity : consciousness. Absolute Deity is the highest level of consciousness which stands at the supreme summit of Being (parakāşţhã). It is attained by a process of ascent through higher levels or, in other words, through increasingly expanded states of consciousness, until we reach the highest and most complete state of expansion possible (pūrnavikāsa). The Supreme Lord rests at the end of the expansion or evolution of objectivity from the lowest level to the supramental state (unmanā) of pure consciousness.

This supreme state is named variously in the differing traditions syncretised into Kashmiri Śaivism. Thus Bhairava (the ‘wrathful’ form of Śiva) figures as the supreme God in Abhinavagupta?’s works when he deals with the doctrine and ritual of the Kaula schools (including Trika? and Krama) and those in various ways linked to them. This male principle is associated with corresponding female ones such as Kālī, Kālasañkarşinī (the ‘Attractress of Time’), Mātŗsadbhāva (the ‘Essence of Subjectivity’) and Parā (the ‘Supreme’). In the Spanda school the supreme male deity is Śiva Who is also called Śañkara, while Spanda is by some identified with the Goddess. When no sectarian distinctions are intended, the supreme is simply called Parameśvara (the Supreme Lord), Paramaśiva or just Śiva.

Voir en ligne : MARK DYCZKOWSKI