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Ibn Arabi (SP) II §13

domingo 24 de abril de 2022

tradução desde Burckhardt

Voltemos agora aos dons que decorrem dos Nomes divinos  : a misericórdia (rahma) que Deus prodigaliza a Suas criaturas decorre inteiramente dos Nomes divinos  : ela é, seja da misericórdia pura, como tudo que é lícito dos alimentos e prazeres naturais e que não manchado de culpa no dia da ressurreição [conforme a palavra corânica: "Diz: quem então tornará ilícito a beleza que Deus manifesta por seus servidores e as coisas lícitas dos alimentos: diz: elas são para aqueles que creem, neste mundo aqui, e elas não serão sujeitas a desaprovação no dia da ressurreição..."] - e são estes dons que decorrem do nome ar-rahmân, - seja da misericórdia misturada (de castigo), como da medicina desagradável a tomar, mas que alivia em seguida. Tais são os dons divinos, pois Deus (em seu aspecto pessoal ou qualificado) sempre só dá por intermediário de um destes guardiões do templo que são Seus Nomes. Assim, Deus gratifica por vezes o servidor por meio do nome O Clemente (ar-rahmân), e é então que o dom é livre de qualquer mistura que seria momentaneamente contrária à natureza daquele que o recebe, ou que contradiria a intenção ou outra coisa (para o demandante); por vezes, Ele dá por intermédio do nome O Vasto (al-wasî), prodigalizando Seus dons de uma maneira global, ou bem Ele dá por intermédio do nome O Sábio (al-hakîm), visando aquilo que é salutar (para o servidor) no momento dado, ou por intermédio do nome Daquele que dá gratuitamente (al-wahhâb), dando o bem sem que aquele que o receba em virtude deste nome deva compensar pelas ações de graça ou de mérito; ou bem Ele dá pelo nome Daquele que reestabelece a ordem (al-jabbâr), considerando o meio cósmico e aquilo que lhe é necessário, ou pelo nome O Perdoante (al-ghaffâr), considerando o estado daquele que receberá o perdão: se ele se encontra em um estado que merece o castigo. Ele o protege deste castigo, Ele o protege de um estado que mereceria, e é neste sentido que o Servidor (santo) é chamado salvaguardado ou protegido do pecado. O doador é sempre Deus, neste sentido que é Ele o tesoureiro de todas as possibilidade e que delas só produz segundo uma medida predestinada e pela mão de um Nome concernente tal possibilidade. Assim, Ele dá a toda coisa sua constituição própria em virtude de Seu nome O Justo (al-adl) e de seus irmãos (como O Árbitro: al-hakam, Aquele que rege: al-wâlî, O Vencedor: al-qahhâr, etc.).

Burckhardt

Venons-en maintenant aux dons qui découlent des Noms divins : la miséricorde (rahmah) que Dieu prodigue à Ses créatures découle tout entière des Noms divins ; elle est, soit de la miséricorde pure, comme tout ce qui est licite des nourritures et jouissances naturelles et qui n’est pas entaché de blâme au jour de la résurrection [conformément à la parole coranique : « Dis : qui donc rendrait illicite la beauté que Dieu manifesta par Ses serviteurs et les choses licites des nourritures ; dis : elles sont pour ceux qui croient, dans ce monde-ci, et elles ne seront pas sujettes à reproche au jour de la résurrection.. »] — et ce sont ces dons-là qui découlent du nom ar-rahmân, — soit de la miséricorde mélangée [de châtiment], comme la médecine désagréable à prendre, mais qui soulage par la suite. Tels sont les dons divins, car Dieu [dans son aspect personnel ou qualifié] ne donne jamais que par l’intermédiaire d’un de ces gardiens du temple que sont Ses Noms. Ainsi, Dieu gratifie parfois le serviteur par l’entremise du nom Le Clément (ar-rahmân), et c’est alors que le don est libre de tout mélange qui serait momentanément contraire à la nature de celui qui le reçoit, ou qui contredirait l’intention ou autre chose [chez le requérant] ; parfois, Il donne par l’entremise du nom Le Vaste (al-wâsi’), prodiguant Ses dons d’une manière globale, ou bien II donne par l’entremise du nom Le Sage (al-hakîm), visant ce qui est [54] salutaire [pour le serviteur] au moment donné, ou par l’entremise du nom de Celui qui donne gratuitement (al-wahhâb), donnant du bien sans que celui qui le reçut en vertu de ce nom doive le compenser par des actions de grâce ou de mérite ; ou bien Il donne par le nom de Celui qui rétablit l’ordre (al-jabbâr), considérant le milieu cosmique et ce qu’il lui faut, ou par le nom Le Pardonnant (al-ghaffâr), considérant l’état de celui qui recevra le pardon : s’il se trouve dans un état qui mérite le châtiment, Il le protège de ce châtiment, et s’il se trouve dans un état qui ne mérite pas de châtiment, Il le protège d’un état qui le mériterait, et c’est en ce sens que le Serviteur [saint] est appelé sauvegardé ou protégé du pêché. Le donateur est toujours Dieu, en ce sens que c’est Lui le trésorier de toutes les possibilités et qu’il n’en produit que selon une mesure prédestinée et par la main d’un Nom concernant telle possibilité. Ainsi, Il donne à toute chose sa constitution propre en vertu de Son nom Le Juste (al-’adl) et de ses frères [comme l’Arbitre : al-hakam, Celui qui régit : al-wâlî, Le Vainqueur : al-qahhâr, etc.].

Austin

As for favors deriving from the Names of God, they are of two kinds: a pure mercy, such as a good pleasure in the world that leaves no taint on the Day of Resurrection, which is bestowed by [God] the Merciful, or a mixed mercy, such as an evil-tasting medicine that brings relief, which is a gift of God in His Divinity, although in His Divinity He always bestows His gifts through the medium of one of the holders of the Names.

Sometimes God bestows a gift on His servant in His Name the Merciful, in which case the gift will be free of all that is contrary to the servant’s nature at the time, or of anything that might fail him. Sometimes God gives in His Name the Encompassing, so that the effect is universal, while at other times He gives in His Name the Wise, to serve the best interests of His servant. He may give in His Name the Bestower, in which He gives as an [unsolicited] favor, so that the recipient is under no obligation to render thanks or to perform works to merit the favor. He may give in His Name the Powerful, in which case His action is in accordance with the requirements of the situation. He may give in His Name the Forgiver, in which He considers the situation or state as it is at the time. If punishment is merited, He will [under this Name] protect the servant from it, and if no punishment is merited, He protects from a state that would incur punishment.

In this way are such servants [the saints] spoken of as being immune and protected [from sin]. The giver is God as Keeper of the treasuries [of His Grace], which only He dispenses according to a prescribed measure through the appropriate Name. He bestows [appropriately] on all He has created, in His Name the Just and similar attributes.

Bewley

As for the gifts of the Names, know that Allah bestows mercy on His creation which is wholly from the names. Either it is a pure mercy, like the excellence of the provision which they have in this world or on the Day of Rising which is bestowed by that name, the Merciful, and so is a gift of mercy, or it is a mixed mercy like the taking of a disagreeable remedy which is followed by relief - it is still a divine gift. Divine gifts can only possibly be given through the intermediary of the guardians of the Names. Sometimes Allah gives it to the slave by means of the All-Merciful, and so the gift is pure from any adulteration which would be contrary to the nature of the moment, otherwise he would not receive the object and what would resemble it. Sometimes He gives by means of the the Boundless, so it is general - or by the Wise, so He looks at what is fitter at the moment, or by the Giving, who gives what is good without those who receive it having to compensate for it by gratitude or deed. He gives by the Compeller, and so He looks at the environment and what is necessary to it. He gives by the Forgiving and so He looks to the environment and what is happening to the individual. If he is in a state which merits punishment, He veils him from it, and if he is in a state which does not merit punishment, He protects him from a state which would merit it. He is "protected from wrong action", "safeguarded", and other descriptions of that sort. The Giver is Allah in the sense that He is the Treasurer of all that is in His treasury, and Allah only brings forth from it according to a predestined decree through the intermediary of a name particular to that matter. So He gives everything its created form (18) according to the name, the Just, and its brothers.


Ver online : IBN ARABI - FUSUS