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EVANGELHO DE JESUS

Maus Lavradores

PARÁBOLAS DE JESUS

segunda-feira 15 de agosto de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

EVANGELHOS   CANÔNICOS: Mt 21:33-46; Mc 12:1-11; Lc 20:9-19

    

Mt 21,33-46

mt  .21.33 αλλην [ANOTHER] παραβολην [PARABLE] ακουσατε [HEAR.] ανθρωπος [A MAN] τις [CERTAIN] ην [THERE WAS] οικοδεσποτης [A MASTER OF A HOUSE,] οστις [WHO] εφυτευσεν [PLANTED] αμπελωνα [A VINEYARD,] και [AND] φραγμον [A FENCE] αυτω [IT] περιεθηκεν [PLACED ABOUT,] και [AND] ωρυξεν [DUG] εν [IN] αυτω [IT] ληνον [A WINEPRESS,] και [AND] ωκοδομησεν [BUILT] πυργον [A TOWER,] και [AND] εξεδοτο [LET OUT] αυτον [IT] γεωργοις [TO HUSBANDMEN,] και [AND] απεδημησεν [LEFT THE COUNTRY.]

mt.21.34 οτε δε [AND WHEN] ηγγισεν [DREW NEAR] ο [THE] καιρος [SEASON] των [OF THE] καρπων [FRUITS,] απεστειλεν τους [HE SENT] δουλους αυτου [HIS BONDMEN] προς [TO] τους [THE] γεωργους [HUSBANDMEN] λαβειν τους [TO RECEIVE] καρπους αυτου [HIS FRUITS.]

mt.21.35 και [AND] λαβοντες [HAVING TAKEN] οι [THE] γεωργοι τους [HUSBANDMEN] δουλους αυτου ον [HIS BONDMEN,] μεν [ONE] εδειραν [THEY BEAT,] ον δε [AND ANOTHER] απεκτειναν [THEY KILLED,] ον δε [AND ANOTHER] ελιθοβολησαν [THEY STONED.]

mt.21.36 παλιν [AGAIN] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] αλλους [OTHER] δουλους [BONDMEN] πλειονας [MORE] των [THAN THE] πρωτων [FIRST,] και [AND] εποιησαν [THEY DID] αυτοις [TO THEM] ωσαυτως [IN LIKE MANNER.]

mt.21.37 υστερον δε [AND AT LAST] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] προς [TO] αυτους τον [THEM] υιον αυτου [HIS SON,] λεγων [SAYING,] εντραπησονται τον [THEY WILL HAVE RESPECT FOR] υιον μου [MY SON.]

mt.21.38 οι δε [BUT THE] γεωργοι [HUSBANDMEN] ιδοντες [SEEING] τον [THE] υιον [SON] ειπον [SAID] εν [AMONG] εαυτοις [THEMSELVES,] ουτος [THIS] εστιν [IS] ο [THE] κληρονομος [HEIR;] δευτε [COME,] αποκτεινωμεν [LET US KILL] αυτον [HIM,] και [AND] κατασχωμεν την [GAIN POSSESSION OF] κληρονομιαν αυτου [HIS INHERITANCE.]

mt.21.39 και [AND] λαβοντες [HAVING TAKEN] αυτον [HIM] εξεβαλον [THEY CAST «HIM»] εξω [OUT OF] του [THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD] και [AND] απεκτειναν [KILLED «HIM».]

mt.21.40 οταν [WHEN] ουν [THEREFORE] ελθη [SHALL COME] ο [THE] κυριος [LORD] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD,] τι [WHAT] ποιησει τοις [WILL HE DO] γεωργοις [HUSBANDMEN] εκεινοις [TO THOSE?]

mt.21.41 λεγουσιν [THEY SAY] αυτω [TO HIM,] κακους [EVIL «MEN»!] κακως [MISERABLY] απολεσει [HE WILL DESTROY] αυτους [THEM,] και [AND] τον [THE] αμπελωνα [VINEYARD] εκδοσεται [HE WILL LET OUT] αλλοις [TO OTHER] γεωργοις [HUSBANDMEN,] οιτινες [WHO] αποδωσουσιν [WILL RENDER] αυτω [TO HIM] τους [THE] καρπους [FRUITS] εν τοις [IN] καιροις αυτων [THEIR SEASONS.]

mt.21.42 λεγει [SAYS] αυτοις ο [TO THEM] ιησους ουδεποτε [JESUS  ,] ανεγνωτε [DID YE NEVER READ] εν [IN] ταις [THE] γραφαις [SCRIPTURES  , «THE»] λιθον [STONE] ον [WHICH] απεδοκιμασαν [REJECTED] οι [THOSE WHO] οικοδομουντες [BUILD,] ουτος [THIS] εγενηθη εις [IS BECOME] κεφαλην [HEAD] γωνιας [OF «THE» CORNER :] παρα [FROM «THE»] κυριου [LORD] εγενετο [WAS] αυτη [THIS,] και [AND] εστιν [IT IS] θαυμαστη [WONDERFUL] εν [IN] οφθαλμοις ημων [OUR EYES?]

mt.21.43 δια [BECAUSE OF] τουτο [THIS] λεγω [I SAY] υμιν [TO YOU,] οτι [THAT] αρθησεται [SHALL BE TAKEN] αφ [FROM] υμων [YOU] η [THE] βασιλεια του [KINGDOM] θεου [OF GOD  ,] και [AND] δοθησεται [IT SHALL BE GIVEN] εθνει [TO A NATION] ποιουντι [PRODUCING] τους [THE] καρπους [FRUITS] αυτης [OF IT.]

mt.21.44 και [AND] ο [HE WHO] πεσων [FALLS] επι τον [ON] λιθον τουτον [THIS STONE] συνθλασθησεται [SHALL BE BROKEN;] εφ ον δ αν [BUT ON WHOMSOEVER] πεση [IT SHALL FALL] λικμησει [IT WILL GRIND TO POWDER] αυτον [HIM.]

mt.21.45 και [AND] ακουσαντες [HEARING] οι [THE] αρχιερεις [CHIEF PRIESTS] και [AND] οι [THE] φαρισαιοι τας [PHARISEES] παραβολας αυτου [HIS PARABLES] εγνωσαν [KNEW] οτι [THAT] περι [ABOUT] αυτων [THEM] λεγει [HE SPEAKS.]

mt.21.46 και [AND] ζητουντες [SEEKING] αυτον [HIM] κρατησαι [TO LAY HOLD OF,] εφοβηθησαν [THEY FEARED] τους [THE] οχλους [CROWDS,] επειδη [BECAUSE] ως [AS] προφητην [A PROPHET] αυτον [HIM] ειχον [THEY HELD.]

Mc 12,1-11

mk  .12.1 και [AND] ηρξατο [HE BEGAN] αυτοις [TO THEM] εν [IN] παραβολαις [PARABLES] λεγειν [TO SAY,] αμπελωνα [A VINEYARD] εφυτευσεν [PLANTED] ανθρωπος [A MAN,] και [AND] περιεθηκεν [PLACED ABOUT «IT»] φραγμον [A FENCE,] και [AND] ωρυξεν [DUG] υποληνιον [A WINE   VAT,] και [AND] ωκοδομησεν [BUILT] πυργον [A TOWER,] και [AND] εξεδοτο [LET OUT] αυτον [IT] γεωργοις [TO HUSBANDMEN,] και [AND] απεδημησεν [LEFT THE COUNTRY.]

mk.12.2 και [AND] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] προς [TO] τους [THE] γεωργους [HUSBANDMEN] τω [AT THE] καιρω [SEASON] δουλον [A BONDMAN,] ινα [THAT] παρα [FROM] των [THE] γεωργων [HUSBANDMEN] λαβη [HE MIGHT RECEIVE] απο [FROM] του [THE] καρπου [FRUIT] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD.]

mk.12.3 οι δε [BUT THEY] λαβοντες [HAVING TAKEN] αυτον [HIM] εδειραν [BEAT,] και [AND] απεστειλαν [SENT «HIM» AWAY] κενον [EMPTY.]

mk.12.4 και [AND] παλιν [AGAIN] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] προς [TO] αυτους [THEM] αλλον [ANOTHER] δουλον [BONDMAN,] κακεινον [AND HIM] λιθοβολησαντες [HAVING STONED] εκεφαλαιωσαν [THEY STRUCK ON THE HEAD,] και [AND] απεστειλαν [SENT «HIM» AWAY] ητιμωμενον [HAVING INSULTED «HIM».]

mk.12.5 και [AND] παλιν [AGAIN] αλλον [ANOTHER] απεστειλεν [HE SENT,] κακεινον [AND HIM] απεκτειναν [THEY KILLED;] και [ALSO] πολλους [MANY] αλλους [OTHERS,] τους μεν [SOME] δεροντες τους [BEATING,] δε [AND OTHERS] αποκτεινοντες [KILLING.]

mk.12.6 ετι [YET] ουν [THEREFORE] ενα [ONE] υιον [SON] εχων [HAVING] αγαπητον [BELOVED] αυτου [HIS OWN,] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] και [ALSO] αυτον [HIM] προς [TO] αυτους [THEM] εσχατον [LAST,] λεγων οτι [SAYING,] εντραπησονται τον [THEY WILL HAVE RESPECT FOR] υιον μου [MY SON.]

mk.12.7 εκεινοι δε οι [BUT THOSE] γεωργοι [HUSBANDMEN] ειπον [SAID] προς [AMONG] εαυτους οτι [THEMSELVES,] ουτος [THIS] εστιν [IS] ο [THE] κληρονομος [HEIR :] δευτε [COME,] αποκτεινωμεν [LET US KILL] αυτον [HIM,] και [AND] ημων [OURS] εσται [WILL BE] η [THE] κληρονομια [INHERITANCE.]

mk.12.8 και [AND] λαβοντες [HAVING TAKEN] αυτον [HIM] απεκτειναν [THEY KILLED «HIM»,] και [AND] εξεβαλον [CAST FORTH «HIM»] εξω [OUTSIDE] του [THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD.]

mk.12.9 τι [WHAT] ουν [THEREFORE] ποιησει [WILL DO] ο [THE] κυριος [LORD] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD?] ελευσεται [HE WILL COME] και [AND] απολεσει [WILL DESTROY] τους [THE] γεωργους [HUSBANDMEN,] και [AND] δωσει [WILL GIVE] τον [THE] αμπελωνα [VINEYARD] αλλοις [TO OTHERS.]

mk.12.10 ουδε την [NOT EVEN] γραφην ταυτην [THIS SCRIPTURE] ανεγνωτε [DID YE READ?] λιθον [«THE» STONE] ον [WHICH] απεδοκιμασαν [REJECTED] οι [THOSE WHO] οικοδομουντες [BUILD,] ουτος [THIS] εγενηθη εις [IS BECOME] κεφαλην [HEAD] γωνιας [OF «THE» CORNER :]

mk.12.11 παρα [FROM «THE»] κυριου [LORD] εγενετο [WAS] αυτη [THIS,] και [AND] εστιν [IT IS] θαυμαστη [WONDERFUL] εν [IN] οφθαλμοις ημων [OUR EYES.]

Lc 20,9-19

lk  .20.9 ηρξατο δε [AND HE BEGAN] προς [TO] τον [THE] λαον [PEOPLE] λεγειν την [TO SPEAK] παραβολην ταυτην [THIS PARABLE :] ανθρωπος [A MAN] τις [CERTAIN] εφυτευσεν [PLANTED] αμπελωνα [A VINEYARD,] και [AND] εξεδοτο [LET OUT] αυτον [IT] γεωργοις [TO HUSBANDMEN,] και [AND] απεδημησεν [LEFT THE COUNTRY] χρονους ικανους [FOR A LONG TIME.]

lk.20.10 και [AND] εν [IN «THE»] καιρω [SEASON] απεστειλεν [HE SENT] προς [TO] τους [THE] γεωργους [HUSBANDMEN] δουλον [A BONDMAN,] ινα [THAT] απο [FROM] του [THE] καρπου [FRUIT] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD] δωσιν [THEY MIGHT GIVE] αυτω οι [TO HIM;] δε [BUT THE] γεωργοι [HUSBANDMEN] δειραντες [HAVING BEAT] αυτον [HIM] εξαπεστειλαν [SENT «HIM» AWAY] κενον [EMPTY.]

lk.20.11 και [AND] προσεθετο [HE ADDED] πεμψαι [TO SEND] ετερον [ANOTHER] δουλον οι [BONDMAN;] δε [BUT THEY] κακεινον [ALSO HIM] δειραντες [HAVING BEAT] και [AND] ατιμασαντες [DISHONOURED «HIM»] εξαπεστειλαν [SENT «HIM» AWAY] κενον [EMPTY.]

lk.20.12 και [AND] προσεθετο [HE ADDED] πεμψαι [TO SEND] τριτον οι [A THIRD;] δε [AND THEY] και [ALSO] τουτον [HIM] τραυματισαντες [HAVING WOUNDED] εξεβαλον [CAST «HIM» OUT.]

lk.20.13 ειπεν δε [AND SAID] ο [THE] κυριος [LORD] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD,] τι [WHAT] ποιησω [SHALL I DO?] πεμψω τον [I WILL SEND] υιον μου [MY SON] τον [THE] αγαπητον [BELOVED;] ισως [PERHAPS] τουτον [HIM] ιδοντες [HAVING SEEN] εντραπησονται [THEY WILL RESPECT.]

lk.20.14 ιδοντες δε [BUT HAVING SEEN] αυτον [HIM] οι [THE] γεωργοι [HUSBANDMEN] διελογιζοντο [REASONED] προς [AMONG] εαυτους [THEMSELVES,] λεγοντες [SAYING,] ουτος [THIS] εστιν [IS] ο [THE] κληρονομος [HEIR;] δευτε [COME] αποκτεινωμεν [LET US KILL] αυτον [HIM,] ινα [THAT] ημων [OURS] γενηται [MAY BECOME] η [THE] κληρονομια [INHERITANCE.]

lk.20.15 και [AND] εκβαλοντες [HAVING CAST FORTH] αυτον [HIM] εξω [OUTSIDE] του [THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD] απεκτειναν [THEY KILLED «HIM».] τι [WHAT] ουν [THEREFORE] ποιησει [WILL DO] αυτοις [TO THEM] ο [THE] κυριος [LORD] του [OF THE] αμπελωνος [VINEYARD?]

lk.20.16 ελευσεται [HE WILL COME] και [AND] απολεσει τους [WILL DESTROY] γεωργους τουτους [THESE HUSBANDMEN,] και [AND] δωσει [WILL GIVE] τον [THE] αμπελωνα [VINEYARD] αλλοις [TO OTHERS.] ακουσαντες δε [AND HAVING HEARD «IT»] ειπον [THEY SAID,] μη [NOT] γενοιτο [MAY IT BE!]

lk.20.17 ο δε [BUT HE] εμβλεψας [LOOKING AT] αυτοις [THEM] ειπεν [SAID,] τι [WHAT] ουν [THEN] εστιν [IS] το [THAT] γεγραμμενον [HAS BEEN WRITTEN] τουτο [THIS,] λιθον [«THE» STONE] ον [WHICH] απεδοκιμασαν [REJECTED] οι [THEY THAT] οικοδομουντες [BUILD,] ουτος [THIS] εγενηθη εις [IS BECOME] κεφαλην [HEAD] γωνιας [OF «THE» CORNER?]

lk.20.18 πας [EVERYONE] ο [THAT] πεσων [FALLS] επ [ON] εκεινον τον [THAT] λιθον [STONE] συνθλασθησεται εφ [WILL BE BROKEN,] ον δ αν [BUT ON WHOMSOEVER] πεση [IT MAY FALL] λικμησει [IT WILL GRIND TO POWDER] αυτον [HIM.]

lk.20.19 και [AND] εζητησαν [SOUGHT] οι [THE] αρχιερεις [CHIEF PRIESTS] και [AND] οι [THE] γραμματεις [SCRIBES] επιβαλειν [TO LAY] επ [ON] αυτον τας [HIM] χειρας [HANDS] εν αυτη τη [IN] ωρα [THAT HOUR,] και [AND] εφοβηθησαν [THEY FEARED] τον [THE] λαον [PEOPLE;] εγνωσαν γαρ [FOR THEY KNEW] οτι [THAT] προς [AGAINST] αυτους την [THEM] παραβολην ταυτην [THIS PARABLE] ειπεν [HE SPEAKS.]


Roberto Pla  

A sentença da pedra   concluindo a parábola (veja sua exegese   em Logion 65), de abundante uso veterotestamentário, serve a Jesus para “voltar” a um sentido geral, o relato particularizado da parábola. Segundo diz Mateus, pergunta Jesus acerca do destino daqueles vinheiros, e aquele auditório judaico   de Sumos Sacerdotes   e fariseus   reunidos com ele naquele lugar responde de acordo com a linha de sentido manifesto   — exegese eclesial “manifesta” —, pois como explica em seguida o evangelista: “compreenderam que o dizia por eles”.

  • Tal fidelidade à exegese eclesiástica, resulta suspeitosa, especialmente quando no vv 43, diz o redator desta passagem do evangelho de Mateus: “Por isso vos digo que vos será retirado o reino de Deus  ”. Com isto se dá por feito que nem um só dos “judeus” ali presentes seria capaz de sanear sua vinha para salvar-se com frutos de conversão.

A pedra era pedra do “lugar do Pai  ”, sobre a qual reclinou Jacó   sua cabeça   e que o serviu como escada ou ponte estendida entre o céu e o mundo terrestre até erigi-la como Casa   de Deus.

  • ...e chegou a um lugar onde passou a noite, porque o sol já se havia posto; e, tomando uma das pedras do lugar e pondo-a debaixo da cabeça, deitou-se ali para dormir  . (Gen 28,11)

Esta pedra tem o mesmo sentido que o tesouro   oculto ou que a fina pérola aludidas em outras parábolas: Tesouro Oculto e Pérola Preciosa. Com tudo isso se quer apontar um símbolo universal   de Filho do homem  , ou Filho de Deus  , o Homem primogênito do sexto dia, de origem   divino, idêntico enquanto raio   de luz, ao Anthropos pai, que reina no céu.

  • Os Naassenos o denominavam “Adamas” (pedra preciosa), posta como cimento de Sião, o edifício espiritual.

O que quer dizer Jesus ao mencionar a pedra em sua conclusão ao relato da parábola é que a pedra é o Filho ou o homem interior  . De passagem, explica Jesus que o Filho é a obra maravilhosa, eleita, preciosa e fundamental “que fez o Pai a nossos olhos”, quer dizer, em nós, acessível à alma   somente pela fé em que esta pedra é nosso hóspede interior que pode ser feito manifesto. Diz o profeta   que “quem tiver fé nela não vacilará”, e com efeito, tal pedra angular é o único fundamento que tem o homem para construir sobre si mesmo   o edifício do homem perfeito  .

Esta lição   máxima, o ensinamento decisivo de sua Boa Nova, é sem dúvida a que quis explicar Jesus a Pedro  ; mas o Sentido oculto   de suas palavras não foram bem entendidos por aqueles que só tentaram explicar a vertente manifesta. Pedro tem, em um instante   crucial de sua vida, a intuição   do Ungido, do Cristo interior, o Filho de Deus vivo. É seguro que começa a descobrir isto em Jesus, o qual é “Cristo em carne  ”, imagem de Deus vivo diante dele; mas também recebe, talvez, com isto e por isto, os primeiros lampejos de ser ele mesmo, interiormente, uno com Jesus, com o Cristo eterno e universal, o Filho de Deus vivo.

Não há dúvida de que uma intuição tão vasta e profunda, não a teve Pedro, tal como o adverte Jesus, pela carne e o sangue  , senão por revelação interior que vem do Pai. Jesus confirma então: “Te digo que tu é Pedro” (de quem Simão é o “nome” ou imagem exterior feita de carne e sangue); tu és a pedra angular desprezada por muitos “chamados” a construir com ela em si mesmos o edifício perfeito.

Tal pedra “eleita”, preciosa, fundamental, que como disse o profeta Zacarias: “tira os pecados deste mundo em um só Dia”, é o Cristo “oculto” em todo homem, a pedra com a qual Jesus confia construir uma igreja   ou congregação de homens fiéis e perfeitos, eleitos, eternos. Contra eles, por ser donos da imortalidade, as portas da mansão dos mortos não prevalecerão.

Quanto à dupla função dessa pedra ficou bem explicado por Lucas como colofão da parábola: “Todo o que cair sobre esta pedra será despedaçado; mas aquele sobre quem ela cair será reduzido a pó” (Lc 20:18). Na pedra está sempre o tropeço do homem que não purificou sua vinha; mas quando ela cai, como um estrela   do céu à terra  , sobre o eleito, é como um crivo sagrado   que limpa o bom trigo   e desfaz-se a restante. Como está dito, só se salva então, “o que leva na fronte o selo de Deus” (Ap 9,4). [Evangelho de Tomé - Logion 65-66]


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