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Plotino - Tratado 9,11 (VI, 9, 11) — "Fugir só para ele só..."

Enéada VI, 9, 11

sábado 26 de março de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 11: "Fugir só para ele só..."

  • 1-7. Depois de ter contemplado o Uno, guarda-se uma imagem dele que é difícil de exprimir.
  • 8-25. A contemplação do Uno implica em um estado de possessão divina, um "êxtase", uma "simplificação" e uma "doação" de si.
  • 25-35. Tudo que se pode dizer da contemplação do Uno nada mais é que uma imagem, um enigma que é preciso interpretar.
  • 35-51. A subida da alma até o Uno é uma fuga solitária do mundo daqui de baixo; lá, próximo do Uno, é a vida que levam os deuses e os homens divinos.

Tradução

11. É isto que quer dizer a interdição, feita nos Mistérios daqui de baixo, de nada revelar aos não-iniciados; é porque o divino não pode ser revelado que ela interdita de mostrá-lo a qualquer um que não tenha tido a felicidade de vê-lo. Logo, posto que não havia duas coisas, mas que aquele que via não fazia senão um com o que era visto, como se isto que fosse visto não fosse visto, mas fosse unido àquele que via, pode lembrar-se do que tinha se convertido quando fosse unido a ele, ele guardará nele mesmo a imagem. Ele era ele mesmo um, pois não tinha nele mesmo nenhuma diferença, nem em relação a ele mesmo nem em relação às outras coisas; com efeito, nada nele se agitava, não havia nem paixão, nem desejo de outra coisa quando lá chegasse. Mas não havia mais razão, nem intelecção e ele não era mais ele mesmo absolutamente, se é preciso disse isso também. Mas como se extasiado, ou melhor, possuído pelo deus, ele se encontrasse tranquilamente na solidão e em um estado de calma perfeita, sem se afastar de nenhuma maneira de sua própria realidade, sem mais girar ao redor dele mesmo, mas em permanecendo «em repouso», e em sendo, por assim dizer, convertido ele mesmo em repouso. Ele não estava entre as belas coisas, e seu curso já o tinha conduzido além do belo e já tinha mesmo superado o coro das virtudes, como aquele que entrou no interior de um santuário, depois de ter deixado atrás dele as estátuas erguidas no templo, e que são no entanto as primeiras que verá quando sairá de novo depois da contemplação e a união que terá tido no interior, não com uma estátua ou com uma imagem, mas com deus ele mesmo. As estátuas não farão o objeto que de uma contemplação secundária. E talvez não fosse uma contemplação, mas uma outra maneira de ver, um êxtase, uma simplificação e uma doação de si, uma aspiração ao contato, uma forma de repouso, uma meditação que aspira à união na coincidência, se se quer contemplar o que se encontra no interior do santuário. Mas se olha de uma outra maneira, não encontra mais nada. É preciso dizer, tudo isso não são senão imagens; logo elas sugerem enigmaticamente aos intérpretes avisados como este deus pode ser visto; mas um sacerdote avisado, que encontra a solução do enigma, pode ter a contemplação verdadeira em entrando no santuário. E mesmo se aí não entra, porque estima que este santuário é uma coisa invisível, e que é «a fonte e o princípio», saberá que se vê o princípio pelo princípio e que semelhante se une ao semelhante. Não negligenciará nenhuma das coisas divinas que a alma pode ter antes mesmo de contemplar, enquanto espera o resto da contemplação: o resto, para aquele que elevou-se além de todas as coisas, é o que se encontra antes de todas as coisas. Pois a alma não alcançará certamente ao não-ser absoluto, mas, se ela desce para o baixo, ela alcançará o mal, e desta maneira ao não-ser, mas não ao não-ser absoluto; enquanto, correndo na direção contrária, ela não alcançará algo de outro, mas ela mesma; e desta maneira, porque ela não está em outra coisa, ela não estará em nada, mas nela mesma; e o fato de ser nela somente, e não nisto que é, implica que ela está nele; pois, na medida que se está em relação com ele, não se é uma realidade, mas a gente se encontra «além da realidade». Logo se a gente se vê convertido nisso, a gente se consideraria como uma cópia dele; e se se partisse de si mesmo para ir da imagem para seu modelo, se alcançaria o «fim da viagem». Se a gente se priva da contemplação, despertando de novo a virtude que está nele e compreendendo que assim se está idealizado pelas virtudes, a gente se sentirá de novo leve, em alcançando pelo intermédio da virtude até o intelecto e o saber, e por intermédio do saber até ele. Tal é a vida que levam os deuses e os homens divinos e bem-aventurados: ser liberado das coisas daqui de baixo, viver sem encontrar seu prazer nas coisas daqui de baixo, fugir só para ele só.

Bouillet

[11] C’est là sans doute ce que signifie la défense qu’on fait dans les mystères d’en révéler le secret aux hommes qui n’ont pas été initiés : comme ce qui est divin est ineffable, on prescrit de n’en point parler à celui qui n’a pas eu le bonheur de le voir.

Puis donc que [dans cette vision de Dieu] il n’y avait pas deux choses, que celui qui voyait était identique à Celui qu’il voyait, de telle sorte qu’il ne le voyait pas, mais qu’il lui était uni, si quelqu’un pouvait conserver le souvenir de ce qu’il était quand il se trouvait ainsi absorbé en Dieu, il aurait en lui-même une image fidèle de Dieu (55). Alors en effet il était lui-même un, il ne renfermait en lui aucune différence, ni par rapport à lui-même, ni par rapport aux autres êtres. Pendant qu’il était ainsi transporté dans la région céleste, rien n’agissait en lui, ni la colère, ni la concupiscence, ni la raison, ni même la pensée; bien plus, il n’était plus lui-même, s’il faut le dire, mais, plongé dans le ravis- 563 sement ou l’enthousiasme (ἁρπασθεὶς ἡ ἐνθυσιάσας), tranquille et solitaire avec Dieu, il jouissait d’un calme imperturbable; renfermé dans sa propre essence, il n’inclinait d’aucun côté, il ne se tournait même pas vers lui-même, il était enfin dans une stabilité parfaite, il était en quelque sorte devenu la stabilité même.

Dans cet état, en effet, l’âme ne s’occupe plus même des belles choses : elle s’élève au-dessus du Beau, elle dépasse le chœur des vertus (56). C’est ainsi que celui qui pénètre dans l’intérieur d’un sanctuaire laisse derrière lui les statues qui sont placées dans le temple ; ce sont les objets qui se présenteront ensuite les premiers à ses yeux à sa sortie du sanctuaire, après qu’il aura joui du spectacle intérieur, qu’il sera entré en communication intime (συνουσία), non avec une image ou une statue (car ce n’est qu’en sortant qu’il considérera les images et les statues), mais avec la Divinité. Le mot même de spectacle (θέαμα) ne paraît pas convenir ici [pour exprimer cette contemplation de l’âme] ; c’est plutôt une extase, une simplification, un abandon de soi, un désir de contact, une parfaite quiétude, enfin un souhait de se confondre avec ce que l’on contemple dans le sanctuaire (57). Quiconque cherche à voir Dieu 564 d’une autre manière ne saurait jouir de sa présence. Par l’emploi de ces figures mystérieuses, les sages prophètes veulent indiquer comment on voit Dieu. Mais le sage hiérophante, pénétrant le mystère, peut, une fois qu’il est arrivé là, jouir de la vue véritable de ce qui est dans le sanctuaire. S’il n’est pas encore arrivé là, il conçoit du moins que ce qui est dans le sanctuaire est une chose invisible [pour les yeux du corps], que c’est la source et le principe de tout, et il le connaît ainsi comme le principe par excellence ; [mais quand il a pénétré dans le sanctuaire] , il voit le principe, il entre en communication avec lui, il unit le semblable au semblable, ne laissant de côté rien de ce que l’âme est capable de posséder des choses divines (58).

565 Avant d’obtenir la vision de Dieu, l’âme désire ce qui lui reste à voir : or, pour qui est monté au-dessus de toutes choses, ce qui reste à voir, c’est Celui-là même qui est au-dessus de toutes choses. En effet, la nature de l’âme n’ira jamais au non-être absolu; en s’abaissant, elle tombera dans le mal, par conséquent, dans le non-être, mais non dans le non-être absolu. Si elle suit la route contraire, elle arrivera non à une chose différente, mais à elle-même. De ce qu’elle n’est alors dans aucune chose différente d’elle, il ne s’ensuit pas qu’elle ne soit dans aucune chose : elle est en elle-même. Or, celui qui est en lui-même, sans être dans l’Être, est nécessairement en Dieu. Il cesse alors lui-même d’être une essence, il devient supérieur à l’Essence en tant qu’il entre en communication avec Dieu. Or, celui qui se voit ainsi devenu Dieu a en lui-même une image de Dieu; et s’il s’élève au-dessus de lui-même, s’il devient comme une image qui viendrait se confondre avec son modèle, il atteindra le terme de son ascension. Ensuite, quand il aura perdu la vue de Dieu, il pourra encore, réveillant la vertu qu’il a conservée en lui, et considérant les perfections qui ornent son âme, remonter à la région céleste, s’élever par la vertu à l’intelligence, et par la sagesse à Dieu même.

566 Telle est la vie des dieux; telle est aussi celle des hommes divins et bienheureux : détachement de toutes les choses d’ici-bas, dédain des voluptés terrestres, fuite de l’âme vers Dieu qu’elle voit seule à seul (59).

Guthrie

ILLUSTRATION FROM THE SECRECY OF THE MYSTERY-RITES.

11. That, no doubt, is the meaning of the mystery-rites’ injunction not to reveal their secrets to the uninitiated. As that which is divine is unspeakable, it is ordered that the initiate should not talk thereof to any (uninitiated person) who have not had the happiness of beholding it (the vision).

THE TRANCE OR ENTHEASM OF ECSTASY.

As (this vision of the divinity) did not imply (the existence of) two things, and as he who was identical to Him whom he saw, so that he did not see Him, but was united thereto, if anyone could preserve the memory of what he was while thus absorbed into the Divinity, he would within himself have a faithful image of the Divinity. Then indeed had he attained at-one-ment, containing no difference, neither in regard to himself, nor to other beings. While he was thus transported into the celestial region, there was within him no activity, no anger, nor appetite, nor reason, nor even thought. So much the more, if we dare say so, was he no longer himself, but sunk in trance or enthusiasm, tranquil and solitary with the divinity, he enjoyed an the calm. Contained within his own “being,” (or, essence), he did not incline to either side, he did not even turn towards himself, he was indeed in a state of perfect stability, having thus, so to speak, become stability itself.

ABOVE BEAUTY AND ABOVE VIRTUE THIS ECSTATIC SIMPLIFICATION IS A COMMUNION.

In this condition, indeed, the soul busies herself not even with the beautiful things, for she rises above beauty, and passes beyond even the (Stoic) “choir of virtues.” Thus he who penetrates into the interior of a sanctuary leaves behind him the statues placed (at the entrance) of the temple. These indeed are the first objects that will strike his view on his exit from the sanctuary, after he shall have enjoyed the interior spectacle, after having entered into intimate communion, not indeed with an image or statue, which would be considered only when he comes out, but with the divinity. The very word “divine spectacle” does not, here, seem sufficient (to express the contemplation of the soul); it is rather an ecstasy, a simplification, a self-abandonment, a desire for intercourse, a perfect quietude, and last, a wish to become indistinguishable from what was contemplated in the sanctuary. Any one who would seek to see the Divinity in any other way would be incapable of enjoying His presence.

THE SPIRITUAL TRUTH OF THE ANCIENT MYSTERIES.

By making use of these mysterious figures, wise interpreters wished to indicate how the divinity might be seen. But the wise hierophant, penetrating the mystery, may, when he has arrived thither, enjoy the veritable vision of what is in the sanctuary. If he have not yet arrived thither, he can at least conceive the invisibility (for physical sight) of That which is in the sanctuary; he can conceive the source and principle of everything, and he recognizes it as the one particular principle worthy of the name. (But when he has succeeded in entering into the sanctuary) he sees the Principle, enters into communication with it, unites like to like, leaving aside no divine thing the soul is capable of acquiring.

SUBSEQUENT ECSTATIC EXPERIENCES OF THE SOUL.

Before obtaining the vision of the divinity, the soul desires what yet remains to be seen. For him, however, who has risen above all things, what remains to be seen is He who is above all other things. Indeed, the nature of the soul will never reach absolute nonentity. Consequently, when she descends, she will fall into evil, that is, nonentity, but not into absolute nonentity. Following the contrary path, she will arrive at something different, namely, herself. From the fact that she then is not in anything different from herself, it does not result that she is within anything, for she remains in herself. That which, without being in essence, remains within itself, necessarily resides in the divinity. Then it ceases to be “being,” and so far as it comes into communion with the Divinity it grows superior to “being” (it becomes supra-being). Now he who sees himself as having become divinity, possesses within himself an image of the divinity. If he rise above himself, he will achieve the limit of his ascension, becoming as it were an image that becomes indistinguishable from its model. Then, when he shall have lost sight of the divinity, he may still, by arousing the virtue preserved within himself, and by considering the perfections that adorn his soul, reascend to the celestial region, by virtue rising to Intelligence, and by wisdom to the Divinity Himself.

THE SOUL’S ULTIMATE FATE IS DETACHMENT AND FLIGHT.

Such is the life of the divinities; such is also that of divine and blessed men; detachment from all things here below, scorn of all earthly pleasures, and flight of the soul towards the Divinity that she shall see face to face (that is, “alone with the alone,” as thought Numenius).

Taylor

XI. This, therefore, is manifested by the mandate of the mysteries, which orders that they shall not be divulged to those who are uninitiated. For as that which is divine cannot be unfolded to the multitude, this mandate forbids the attempt to elucidate it to any one but him who is fortunately able to perceive it. Since, therefore, [in this conjunction with deity] there were not two things, but the perceiver was one with the thing perceived, as not being [properly speaking] vision but union; whoever becomes one by mingling with deity, and afterwards recollects this union, will have with himself an image of it. But he was also himself one, having with .respect to himself no difference, nor with respect to other things. For then there was not any thing excited with him who had ascended thither; neither anger, nor the desire of any thing else, nor reason, nor a certain intellectual perception, nor, in short, was even he himself moved, if it be requisite also to assert this; but being as it were in an ecstasy, or energizing enthusiastically, he became established in quiet and solitary union, not at all deviating from his own essence, nor revolving about himself, but being entirely stable, and becoming as it were stability itself. Neither was he then excited by any thing beautiful; but running above the beautiful, he passed beyond even the choir of the virtues. Just as if some one having entered into the interior of the adytum should leave behind all the statues in the temple, which on his departure from the adytum will first present themselves to his view, after the inward spectacle, and the association that was there, which was not with a statue or an image, but with the thing itself [which the images represent], and which necessarily become the second objects of his perception. Perhaps, however, this was not a spectacle, but there was another mode of vision, viz. ecstasy, and an expansion and accession of himself, a desire of contact, rest, and a striving after conjunction, in order to behold what the adytum contains. But nothing will be present with him who beholds in any other way. The wise prophets, therefore, obscurely signified by these imitations how this [highest] God is seen. But the wise priest understanding the enigma, and having entered into the adytum, obtains a true vision of what is there. If, however, he has not entered, he will conceive this adytum to be a certain invisible thing, and will have a knowledge of the fountain and principle, as the principle of things. But when situated there, he will see the principle, and will be conjoined with it, by a union of like with like, neglecting nothing divine which the soul is able to possess. Prior to the vision also it requires that which remains from the vision. But that which remains to him who passes beyond all things, is that which is prior to all things. For the nature of the soul will never accede to that which is entirely non-being. But proceeding indeed downwards it will fall into evil; and thus into non-being, yet not into that which is perfect nonentity. Running, however, in a contrary direction, it will arrive not at another thing, but at itself. And thus not being in another thing it is not on that account in nothing, but is in itself. To be in itself alone, however, and not in being, is to be in God For God also is something which is not essence, but beyond essence. Hence the soul when in this condition associates with him. He, therefore, who perceives himself to associate with God, will have himself the similitude of him And if he passes from himself as an image to the arche type, he will then have the end of his progression. But when he falls from the vision of God, if he again excites the virtue which is in himself, and perceives himself to be perfectly adorned; he will again be elevated through virtue proceeding to intellect and wisdom, and afterwards to the principle of all things. This, therefore, is the life of the Gods, and of divine and happy men, a liberation from all terrene concerns, a life unaccompanied with human pleasures and a flight of the alone to the alone (Thomas Taylor - a solitária subsitência do Uno).