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Plotino - Tratado 38,31 (VI, 7, 31) — A subida da alma para o Bem

Enéada VI, 7, 31

domingo 27 de março de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 31-42: O Bem está na origem e na fonte da vida, do Intelecto e da alma: eis porque é desprovido de pensar, de conhecimento e de ser.

  • Cap 31: A subida alma para o Bem.
  • Cap 32-33: A alma se dirige para o que é desprovido de forma, pois aí está a fonte de toda beleza e de todo desejo.
  • Cap 34-35: Indo além do Intelecto, a alma realiza a união com ela mesma e reencontra seu princípio.
  • Cap 36: Posição do problema: pode-se dizer que o Bem pensa?
  • Cap 37: Exame e refutação da doutrina aristotélica de um Intelecto primeiro que se pensa ele mesmo.
  • Cap 38-39: A doutrina platônica do ser e do conhecimento.
  • Cap 40-41: A condição do Bem, que é absolutamente um, primeiro e autárcico, o impede de fazer ato de pensamento, pois o ato de pensar supõe o ser do que é pensado e um princípio que suscita o pensamento, o que é incompatível com o estatuto do Bem
  • Cap 42: A hierarquia do real.

Míguez

31. Dado que todas las cosas son embellecidas y tienen su luz de aquello que está antes que ellas, la Inteligencia le deberá también ese acto resplandeciente con el cual ilumina la naturaleza. La misma potencia vital del alma habrá de descansar en una vida más grande que se ha acercado a ella. Y será elevada hacía lo alto y permanecerá allí, gozosa de haber llegado a su principio. Porque el alma que puede hacerlo, se vuelve hacia el Bien con afán de conocerlo y de verlo; se regocija entonces con esta contemplación y, en tanto le es posible la visión, queda plena de estupor. La visión es para ella como un choque, con el que el alma adquiere conciencia de poseer algo de su principio; y ocurre aquí como con los que son movidos por la imagen del ser amado, que quieren ver en él nada menos que al amado mismo. Lo mismo, pues, que vemos a los que se aman adornarse con las actitudes del amado y disponer sus almas y sus cuerpos de manera semejante a él para no quedar así atrás en lo que de ellos dependa, por ejemplo en prudencia y en todas sus demás virtudes (despreciados serían por el amado y no podrían unirse a él más que poseyendo sus virtudes), de igual manera el alma ama el Bien, porque ya desde el principio ha sido movida por El a este amor. Quien tiene a su alcance este amor, no espera ya el aviso de las bellezas de este mundo; desde el momento que lo posee y al igual que si no lo poseyese, anda siempre a la búsqueda del Bien y, queriendo ascender hasta El, muestra desdén hacia todo lo bello de este mundo. Y viendo las bellezas de este universo sensible siente verdadero recelo de ellas porque las advierte encarnadas en cuerpos, infectadas por la morada que les toca en suerte y divididas según la magnitud. No son éstas las bellezas que podemos esperar del mundo inteligible (pues tales bellezas no se atreverían a embarcarse en el cieno de los cuerpos para ensuciarse en él y salir después en tal estado); por ello, cuando vemos que discurren a nuestro lado, conocemos con toda certeza que reciben de alguna otra parte ese resplandor que circula por ellas.

El alma, pues, se ve llevada hacia el mundo inteligible en el que se manifiesta hábil para descubrir a su amado. Y no se detiene antes de esta elección, siempre, claro está, que no se le arrebate su amor. Allí ve claramente todo lo que hay de bello e incluso las realidades verdaderas, y cobra fuerzas porque se llena de la vida del ser. Ella misma se convierte en un ser real, adquiere la inteligencia del ser real puesto que al fin se encuentra cerca de él, y toma conciencia de lo que buscaba desde hacía tanto tiempo.

Bouillet

XXXI. Puisque toutes choses ont été embellies par Celui qui est au-dessus d’elles et qu’elles reçoivent de lui leur lumière; quel’ Intelligence tient de lui l’éclat de son acte intellectuel, éclat par lequel elle illumine la Nature; que l’Ame tient également de lui sa puissance vitale, parce qu’elle trouve enfin une source abondante de vie; il en résulte que l’Intelligence s’est élevée à lui et lui est restée attachée, satisfaite de jouir de sa présence, que l’âme s’est aussi tournée vers lui autant qu’elle le pouvait, que, dès qu’elle l’a connu et qu’elle l’a vu, elle a été remplie de joie par sa contemplation, et, qu’autant qu’elle pouvait le voir, elle a été frappée d’admiration. Elle n’a pu le voir sans être frappée, elle a senti qu’elle avait en elle quelque chose de lui ; c’est cette disposition qui l’a portée à désirer sa vue, comme l’image d’un objet aimable fait souhaiter de pouvoir le contempler lui-même. Ici-bas, les amants tâchent de ressemblera l’objet aimé, de rendre leur corps plus gracieux, de conformer leur âme à leur modèle, de rester le moins possible inférieurs pour la tempérance et les autres vertus à celui qu’ils aiment, sous peine d’être méprisés par lui, et ils parviennent ainsi à jouir de son intimité (109); de même, l’âme aime le Bien parce qu’elle est dès le commencement provoquée par lui à l’aimer. Quand elle est prête à aimer, elle n’attend pas que les beautés d’ici-bas lui donnent la réminiscence du Bien ; pleine d’amour, même quand elle ignore ce qu’elle possède, elle cherche toujours, et, enflammée du désir de s’élever au Bien, elle dédaigne les choses d’ici-bas : en considérant les beautés que lui présente notre univers, elle les soupçonne d’être trompeuses, parce qu’elle les voit revêtues de chair et unies à nos corps, souillées par la matière où elles résident, divisées par l’étendue, et qu’elle ne les reconnaît pas comme de véritables beautés (car elle ne saurait croire que celles-ci puissent se plonger dans ce bourbier des corps, se souiller et s’obscurcir (110) ; enfin, quand l’âme remarque que les beautés d’ici-bas sont dans un flux perpétuel, elle reconnaît clairement qu’elles tiennent d’ailleurs cet éclat dont elles brillent (111). Alors elle s’élève au monde intelligible : étant capable de découvrir ce qu’elle aime, elle ne s’arrête pas avant de l’avoir trouvé, à moins qu’on ne lui fasse perdre son amour. Arrivée là, elle contemple toutes les vraies beautés, les vraies réalités (112) ; elle se fortifie en se remplissant de la vie propre à l’Être ; elle devient elle-même être véritable ; elle est intimement unie à l’intelligible qu’elle possède réellement, et en sa présence elle a le sentiment de ce qu’elle cherchait depuis longtemps.

Guthrie

THE SOUL SCORNING ALL THINGS BELOW RISES TO THE GOOD.

31. Since all things have been embellished by Him who is above them, and have received their light from Him; since Intelligence derives from Him the splendor of its intellectual actualization; by which splendor it illuminates nature; since from Him also the soul derives her vital power, because she finds in Him an abundant source of life; consequently, Intelligence has risen to Him, and has remained attached to Him, satisfied in the bliss of His presence; consequently also the soul, to the utmost of her ability, turned towards Him, for, as soon as she has known Him and seen Him, she was, by her contemplation, filled with bliss; and, so far as she could see Him, she was overwhelmed with reverence. She could not see Him without being impressed with the feeling that she had within herself something of Him; it was this disposition of hers that led her to desire to see Him, as the image of some lovable object makes one wish to be able to contemplate it oneself. Here below, lovers   try to resemble the beloved object, to render their body more gracious, to conform their soul to their model, by temperance and the other virtues to remain as little inferior as possible to Him whom they love, for fear of being scorned by Him; and thus they succeed in enjoying intimacy with Him. Likewise, the soul loves the Good, because, from the very beginning she is provoked to love Him. When she is ready to love, she does not wait for the beauties here below to give her the reminiscence of the Good; full of love, even when she does not know what she possesses, she is ever seeking; and inflamed with the desire to rise to the Good, she scorns the things here below. Considering the beauties presented by our universe, she suspects that they are deceptive, because she sees them clothed upon with flesh, and united to our bodies, soiled by the matter where they reside, divided by extension, and she does not recognize them as real beauties, for she cannot believe that the latter could plunge into the mire of these bodies, soiling and obscuring themselves. Last, when the soul observes that the beauties here below are in a perpetual flux, she clearly recognizes that they derive this splendor with which they shine, from elsewhere. Then she rises to the intelligible world; being capable of discovering what she loves, she does not stop before having found it, unless she be made to lose her love. Having arrived there, she contemplates all the true beauties, the true realities; she refreshes herself by filling herself up with the life proper to essence. She herself becomes genuine essence. She fuses with the Intelligible which she really possesses, and in its presence she has the feeling (of having found) what she was seeking so long.

MacKenna

31. But since Thence come the beauty and light in all, it is Thence that Intellectual-Principle took the brilliance of the Intellectual Energy which flashed Nature into being; Thence soul took power towards life, in virtue of that fuller life streaming into it. Intellectual-Principle was raised thus to that Supreme and remains with it, happy in that presence. Soul too, that soul which as possessing knowledge and vision was capable, clung to what it saw; and as its vision so its rapture; it saw and was stricken; but having in itself something of that principle it felt its kinship and was moved to longing like those stirred by the image of the beloved to desire of the veritable presence. Lovers   here mould themselves to the beloved; they seek to increase their attraction of person and their likeness of mind; they are unwilling to fall short in moral quality or in other graces lest they be distasteful to those possessing such merit - and only among such can true love be. In the same way the soul loves the Supreme Good, from its very beginnings stirred by it to love. The soul which has never strayed from this love waits for no reminding from the beauty of our world: holding that love - perhaps unawares - it is ever in quest, and, in its longing to be borne Thither, passes over what is lovely here and with one glance at the beauty of the universe dismisses all; for it sees that all is put together of flesh and Matter, befouled by its housing, made fragmentary by corporal extension, not the Authentic Beauty which could never venture into the mud of body to be soiled, annulled.

By only noting the flux of things it knows at once that from elsewhere comes the beauty that floats upon them and so it is urged Thither, passionate in pursuit of what it loves: never - unless someone robs it of that love - never giving up till it attain.

There indeed all it saw was beautiful and veritable; it grew in strength by being thus filled with the life of the True; itself becoming veritable Being and attaining veritable knowledge, it enters by that neighbouring into conscious possession of what it has long been seeking.