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Plotino - Tratado 38,22 (VI, 7, 22) — O Intelecto é uma imagem do Bem

Enéada VI, 7, 22

domingo 27 de março de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 15-30: O Intelecto e aquilo que está além dele: a natureza do Bem e as dificuldades que surgem ao redor dele.

  • Cap 15: O Intelecto e a vida inteligível não são senão uma imagem do Bem.
  • Cap 16-18: Em qual sentido o inteligível é uma imagem do Bem? Porque o Intelecto e as formas provêm do Bem.
  • Cap 19-20: Em qual sentido o Bem é um objeto de desejo para a alma?
  • Cap 21-23: A alma deseja o Intelecto que é uma imagem do Bem, e é nesta medida que ela tem acesso ao Bem.
  • Cap 24-25, 16: As dificuldades concernindo a definição do Bem como objeto de desejo da alma.
  • Cap 25, 16-18: O Bem não é tal porque é objeto de desejo.
  • Cap 25, 18-32: O Bem é o que se encontra no topo do real.
  • Cap 26: O Bem não é objeto de desejo porque é uma fonte de prazer.
  • Cap 27: O Bem é, para cada realidade, o que vem antes dela; eis o que explica que para o Bem supremo, que nada tem antes dele, não existe qualquer bem.
  • Cap 28: Pode haver um bem para a matéria?
  • Cap 29-30: O Bem procura uma forma de prazer que corresponde à mistura de prazer e inteligência da qual fala Platão no Filebo  .

Míguez

22. En el momento en que se ve esta luz, todo nos lleva hacia los inteligibles, absorbidos por esa luz que se extiende sobre ellos y de la que se goza, no de otro modo que, como en este mundo, nos prendamos amorosamente, no de los cuerpos mismos, sino de la belleza reflejada en ellos. Cada inteligible es lo que es por sí mismo, y se convierte en objeto de deseo en el momento en que el bien se apodera de él y le da gracias lo mismo que él da amor a aquel que lo desea. El alma recibe entonces un efluvio de la región inteligible, se mueve y se siente agitada por el aguijón del deseo y he aquí que nace en ella el amor.

Antes de esto el alma no se veía llevada hacia la Inteligencia, por muy bella que ésta fuese. Porque la belleza de la Inteligencia es en realidad una belleza ociosa, si no ha recibido todavía la luz del bien. El alma misma se vuelve de espaldas, permanece en completa indolencia y, aunque la Inteligencia esté presente a ella, su misma pereza la invalida. Ahora bien, cuando se apodera del alma el calor del mundo inteligible, el alma cobra fuerzas, se despierta, nacen en ella alas verdaderas y, aunque prendada por lo que advierte cerca de sí, se lanza hacia lo alto como aligerada profundamente en su recuerdo. Y, en tanto haya todavía objetos más altos que su objeto actual, el alma se eleva naturalmente movida por el que la ha dotado de amor. Sobrepasa entonces a la Inteligencia y no puede en realidad exceder al Bien porque nada se encuentra ya sobre ella. Si permanece en la Inteligencia, contempla objetos hermosos y venerables, sin que por esto posea todo lo que ella busca. Es lo que ocurre cuando nos hallamos ante un rostro bello pero que, sin embargo, no es capaz de mover nuestra vista porque la gracia no ha sido dispensadora de esta belleza. Por ello se dice ya aquí que la belleza descansa más en el resplandor de la simetría que en la simetría misma, pues es ese resplandor el que la hace amable. ¿Cómo explicaríamos si no el que en un rostro vivo se manifieste la luz de la belleza, en tanto ese cuerpo presa de la muerte sólo atestigua su huella, antes incluso de que desaparezca la simetría del rostro por la corrupción de la carner1 Entre las estatuas, las más hermosas son siempre las más vivas, y ello aunque existan otras con mucha más simetría.

Y hay todavía más: un hombre feo pero vivo es más hermoso que la estatua de un hombre bello 1 . Nos lo hace comprender una razón: la de que es más deseable; y. es más deseable porque tiene un alma, y tiene un alma a la vez porque posee la forma del Bien. Con la luz del Bien se han encendido sus colores y es esto lo que hace que se despierte, se sienta aligerado y aligere asimismo lo que con él se encuentra. El cuerpo mismo recibe toda su bondad y energía.

Bouillet

XXII. Quand l’âme aperçoit la lumière que le Bien répand ainsi sur les intelligibles, elle se porte vers eux, et elle éprouve une jouissance délicieuse en contemplant la lumière qui les revêt (78). De même ici-bas, nous n’aimons pas les corps pour eux-mêmes, mais pour la beauté qui reluit en eux (79). Chaque intelligible est par lui-même ce qu’il est; mais il ne devient désirable que quand le Bien l’illumine et le colore en quelque sorte, donnant à ce qui est désiré les grâces et à ce qui désire les amours. Dès que l’âme ressent l’influence du Bien, elle s’émeut, elle entre en délire, elle est aiguillonnée par le désir, et l’amour naît en elle (80). Avant de ressentir l’influence du Bien, elle n’éprouve aucun transport devant la beauté de l’Intelligence : car cette beauté est morte tant qu’elle n’est pas illuminée par le Bien. Aussi l’âme reste-t-elle alors affaissée sur elle-même; elle demeure froide et engourdie, même en présence de l’Intelligence. Mais dès qu’elle ressent la douce chaleur du Bien, elle prend des forces, elle s’éveille et elle ouvre ses ailes ; et, au lieu de s’arrêter à admirer l’Intelligence qui est devant elle, elle s’élève à l’aide de la réminiscence à un principe plus haut encore [au Premier]. Tant qu’il y a quelque chose de supérieur à ce qu’elle possède, elle monte entraînée par l’attrait naturel qu’a pour elle Celui qui inspire l’amour; elle franchit la région de l’Intelligence, et elle s’arrête au Bien parce qu’il n’y a plus rien au delà (81). Tant qu’elle contemple l’Intelligence, elle jouit assurément d’un noble et magnifique spectacle, mais elle ne possède pas encore pleinement ce qu’elle cherche. Tel est un visage qui ne peut attirer les regards malgré sa beauté, parce qu’il n’y joint pas le charme de la grâce. Le beau est en effet plutôt l’éclat dont brille la proportion que la proportion même, et c’est proprement cet éclat qui se fait aimer. Pourquoi la beauté brille-t-elle de tout son éclat sur la face d’un vivant, et n’en voit-on après la mort que le vestige, alors même que les chairs et les traits ne sont pas encore altérés? Pourquoi, entre plusieurs statues, les plus vivantes paraissent-elles plus belles que d’autres mieux proportionnées? Pourquoi un animal vivant, fût-il laid, est-il plus beau qu’un animal en peinture, ce dernier eût-il d’ailleurs une forme plus parfaite? C’est que la forme vivante nous parait plus désirable, c’est qu’elle a une âme, c’est qu’elle est plus conforme au Bien; c’est enfin que l’âme est colorée par la lumière du Bien, qu’éclairée par lui elle en est comme plus éveillée et plus légère, et qu’à son tour elle allège, elle éveille et fait participer du Bien, autant qu’il en est capable, le corps dans lequel elle réside.

Guthrie

GOOD CONSISTS IN ILLUMINATION BY THE EXTREME.

22. When the soul perceives the light thus shed by the Good on the intelligible entities, she flies towards them, tasting an indescribable bliss in the contemplation of the light that illuminates them. Likewise here below, we do not like the bodies for themselves, but for the beauty that shimmers in them. Each intelligible entity owes its nature to none but to itself; but it only becomes desirable when the Good, so to speak, illuminates and colors it, breathing grace into the desired object, and inspiring love into the desiring heart. As soon as the soul reacts to the influence of the Good, she feels emotion, swells with fancy, is stung by desire, and love is born within her. Before reacting to the influence of good she feels no transports when facing the beauty of Intelligence; for this beauty is dead so long as it is not irradiated by the Good. Consequently the soul still remains depressed and bowed down, cold and torpid, in front of Intelligence. But as soon as she feels the gentle warmth of the Good, she is refreshed, she awakes, and spreads her wings; and instead of stopping to admire the Intelligence in front of her, she rises by the aid of reminiscence to a still higher principle (the First). So long as there is anything superior to what she possesses, she rises, allured by her natural leaning for the Inspirer of love; so she passes through the region of Intelligence, and stops at the Good because there is nothing beyond. So long as she contemplates Intelligence, she surely enjoys a noble and magnificent spectacle, but she does not yet fully possess the object of her search. Such would be a human countenance, which, in spite of its beauty, is not attractive, for lack of the charm of grace. Beauty is, indeed, rather the splendor that enhalos proportion, than proportion itself; and it is properly this splendor which challenges love. Why indeed does beauty shine radiantly on the face of a living person, and yet leave hardly a trace after death, even when the complexion and features are not yet marred? Why, among different statues, do the most life-like ones seem more beautiful than others that may be better proportioned? Why is a living being, though ugly, more beautiful than a pictured one, even though the latter were the most handsome imaginable? The secret is that the living form seems to us most desirable, because it possesses a living soul, because it is most assimilated to the Good; because the soul is colored by the light of the Good, and because, enlightened by the Good she is more wakeful and lighter, and because in her turn she lightens the burdens, awakes, and causes participation of the Good, so far as she may be able, in the body within which she resides.

MacKenna

22. That light known, then indeed we are stirred towards those Beings in longing and rejoicing over the radiance about them, just as earthly love is not for the material form but for the Beauty manifested upon it. Every one of those Beings exists for itself but becomes an object of desire by the colour cast upon it from The Good, source of those graces and of the love they evoke. The soul taking that outflow from the divine is stirred; seized with a Bacchic passion, goaded by these goads, it becomes Love. Before that, even Intellectual-Principle with all its loveliness did not stir the soul; for that beauty is dead until it take the light of The Good, and the soul lies supine, cold to all, unquickened even to Intellectual-Principle there before it. But when there enters into it a glow from the divine, it gathers strength, awakens, spreads true wings, and however urged by its nearer environing, speeds its buoyant way elsewhere, to something greater to its memory: so long as there exists anything loftier than the near, its very nature bears it upwards, lifted by the giver of that love. Beyond Intellectual-Principle it passes but beyond The Good it cannot, for nothing stands above That. Let it remain in Intellectual-Principle and it sees the lovely and august, but it is not there possessed of all it sought; the face it sees is beautiful no doubt but not of power to hold its gaze because lacking in the radiant grace which is the bloom upon beauty.

Even here we have to recognise that beauty is that which irradiates symmetry rather than symmetry itself and is that which truly calls out our love.

Why else is there more of the glory of beauty upon the living and only some faint trace of it upon the dead, though the face yet retains all its fulness and symmetry? Why are the most living portraits the most beautiful, even though the others happen to be more symmetric? Why is the living ugly more attractive than the sculptured handsome? It is that the one is more nearly what we are looking for, and this because there is soul there, because there is more of the Idea of The Good, because there is some glow of the light of The Good and this illumination awakens and lifts the soul and all that goes with it so that the whole man is won over to goodness, and in the fullest measure stirred to life.