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Plotino - Tratado 38,20 (VI, 7, 20) — Em qual sentido o Bem é um objeto de desejo para a alma?

Enéada VI, 7, 20

domingo 27 de março de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 15-30: O Intelecto e aquilo que está além dele: a natureza do Bem e as dificuldades que surgem ao redor dele.

  • Cap 15: O Intelecto e a vida inteligível não são senão uma imagem do Bem.
  • Cap 16-18: Em qual sentido o inteligível é uma imagem do Bem? Porque o Intelecto e as formas provêm do Bem.
  • Cap 19-20: Em qual sentido o Bem é um objeto de desejo para a alma?
  • Cap 21-23: A alma deseja o Intelecto que é uma imagem do Bem, e é nesta medida que ela tem acesso ao Bem.
  • Cap 24-25, 16: As dificuldades concernindo a definição do Bem como objeto de desejo da alma.
  • Cap 25, 16-18: O Bem não é tal porque é objeto de desejo.
  • Cap 25, 18-32: O Bem é o que se encontra no topo do real.
  • Cap 26: O Bem não é objeto de desejo porque é uma fonte de prazer.
  • Cap 27: O Bem é, para cada realidade, o que vem antes dela; eis o que explica que para o Bem supremo, que nada tem antes dele, não existe qualquer bem.
  • Cap 28: Pode haver um bem para a matéria?
  • Cap 29-30: O Bem procura uma forma de prazer que corresponde à mistura de prazer e inteligência da qual fala Platão no Filebo  .

Míguez

20. Como ya no confiamos en los deseos para determinar la esencia y la cualidad del bien, ¿debemos acudir al juicio y a las oposiciones cualitativas que ofrecen las cosas, como orden y desorden, proporción y desproporción, salud y enfermedad, forma y falta de ella, esencia y disolución y, en general, persistencia y desaparición? ¿Quién podría dudar que el primer término de cada pareja no se encuentre en la especie del bien? Si así es, colocaremos necesariamente del lado del bien las causas que producen estas cualidades. Quedarán, pues, incluidas en la especie del bien la inteligencia, la vida y el alma, o cuando menos el alma que tiene conciencia de sí misma; también, claro está, todo lo que esta alma desea.

¿Por qué, dirá alguien, no hemos de detenernos en la Inteligencia y proponerla ya como si fuese el Bien? Pues el alma y la vida son huellas de la inteligencia y el alma tiende a ella por su deseo. El alma juzga y desea a la Inteligencia; juzga, por ejemplo, que la justicia es mejor que la injusticia y que cada especie de virtudes es mejor que la especie correspondiente de vicios; y acontece con esto que aquello por lo que tiene predilección es lo que precisamente escoge. Si el alma sólo aspirase a la Inteligencia habría necesidad de un razonamiento más prolijo para mostrar que la inteligencia no es el término final y que no todo ser aspira a ella, en tanto sí aspira al Bien. Los seres que no poseen inteligencia no se preocupan en modo alguno por poseerla, y los que la poseen no se detienen aquí sino que tratan todavía de encontrar el Bien. Aspiran a la inteligencia racionalmente, pero al Bien ya antes de hacer uso de la razón. Si es verdad que el alma desea vivir, existir y actuar siempre, la inteligencia no podrá ser el objeto de su deseo como tal inteligencia sino en su calidad de bien, que proviene del Bien y lleva hacia el Bien. Y lo mismo se diría de la vida [1].

Bouillet

XX. Puisque maintenant nous n’avons pas confiance dans les désirs pour déterminer ici l’essence et la qualité, aurons-nous recours à d’autres règles, aux contraires, par exemple, tels que l’ordre et le désordre (74), la proportion et la disproportion, la santé et la maladie, la forme et le manque de forme, l’essence et la destruction, la consistance et le défaut de consistance? Qui pourrait hésiter à attribuer à la forme du bien les caractères qui constituent le premier membre de chacune de ces oppositions? — S’il en est ainsi, il faudra rapporter aussi au bien les causes efficientes de ces caractères : car la vertu, la vie, l’intelligence et la sagesse sont comprises dans la forme du bien, comme étant les choses que désire l’âme qui est sage.

Pourquoi donc, dira-t-on, ne pas nous arrêter à l’intelligence et y placer le bien? Car l’âme et la vie sont des images de l’intelligence. C’est à l’intelligence que l’âme aspire, c’est d’après elle, qu’elle juge, c’est sur elle qu’elle se règle, en prononçant que la justice est meilleure que l’injustice, en préférant chaque espèce de vertu à chaque espèce de vice, et en estimant davantage ce qu’elle regarde comme préférable. — Mais l’âme n’aspire pas à l’intelligence seule (75). Comme on peut le démontrer par une longue discussion, l’intelligence n’est pas le but suprême auquel nous aspirons, et tout n’aspire pas à l’intelligence, tandis que tout aspire au bien ; les êtres qui ne possèdent pas l’intelligence ne cherchent pas tous à la posséder, tandis que ceux qui possèdent l’intelligence ne s’y arrêtent pas ; l’intelligence n’est recherchée que par suite d’un raisonnement, tandis que le bien est désiré même avant que la raison s’exerce. Si l’objet du désir est de vivre, d’exister toujours et d’agir, cet objet n’est point désiré en tant qu’il est intelligence, mais en tant qu’il est bien, qu’il a le bien pour principe et pour fin : car c’est seulement sous ce rapport que la vie est désirable.

Guthrie

PYTHAGOREAN OPPOSITIONS ARE ALSO WORTHLESS AS EXPLANATIONS OF GOOD.

20. Since therefore we have given up desires as forms in the determination of the nature and quality (of the good), shall we have recourse to other rules, such as, for instance (the Pythagorean) “oppositions,” such as order and disorder, proportion and disproportion, health and sickness, form and formlessness, being and destruction, consistence and its lack? Who indeed would hesitate to attribute to the form of good those characteristics which constitute the first member of each of these opposition-pairs? If so, the efficient causes of these characteristics will also have to be traced to the good; for virtue, life, intelligence and wisdom are comprised within the form of good, as being things desired by the soul that is wise.

GOOD NOT DEFINED BY INTELLIGENCE, AS THE SOUL HAS OTHER ASPIRATIONS.

It will further be suggested (by followers of Aristotle  ) that we stop at Intelligence, predicating goodness of it. For life and soul are images of Intelligence. It is to Intelligence that the soul aspires, it is according to Intelligence that the soul judges, it is on Intelligence that the soul regulates herself, when she pronounces that justice is better than injustice, in preferring every kind of virtue to every kind of vice, and in holding in high estimation what she considers preferable. Unfortunately, the soul does not aspire to Intelligence exclusively. As might be demonstrated in a long discussion, Intelligence is not the supreme goal to which we aspire, and not everything aspires to Intelligence, whilst everything aspires to the Good. The (beings) which do not possess intelligence do not all seek to possess it, while those who do possess it, do not limit themselves to it. Intelligence is sought only as the result of a train of reasoning, whilst Good is desired even before reason comes into play. If the object of desire be to live, to exist always, and to be active, this object is not desired because of Intelligence, but because of its being good, inasmuch as the Good is its principle and its goal. It is only in this respect that life is desirable.

MacKenna

20. Since we are not entitled to make desire the test by which to decide on the nature and quality of the good, we may perhaps have recourse to judgement.

We would apply the opposition of things - order, disorder; symmetry, irregularity; health, illness; form, shapelessness; real-being, decay: in a word continuity against dissolution. The first in each pair, no one could doubt, belong to the concept of good and therefore whatever tends to produce them must be ranged on the good side.

Thus virtue and Intellectual-Principle and life and soul - reasoning soul, at least - belong to the idea of good and so therefore does all that a reasoned life aims at.

Why not halt, then - it will be asked - at Intellectual-Principle and make that The Good? Soul and life are traces of Intellectual-Principle; that principle is the Term of Soul which on judgement sets itself towards Intellectual-Principle, pronouncing right preferable to wrong and virtue in every form to vice, and thus ranking by its choosing.

The soul aiming only at that Principle would need a further lessoning; it must be taught that Intellectual-Principle is not the ultimate, that not all things look to that while all do look to the good. Not all that is outside of Intellectual-Principle seeks to attain it; what has attained it does not halt there but looks still towards good. Besides, Intellectual-Principle is sought upon motives of reasoning, the good before all reason. And in any striving towards life and continuity of existence and activity, the object is aimed at not as Intellectual-Principle but as good, as rising from good and leading to it: life itself is desirable only in view of good.


[1Consúltese para todo esto, Fedro, 251 c, y siguientes.