Página inicial > Antiguidade > Neoplatonismo (245-529 dC) > Plotino (204-270 dC) – Tratados Enéadas > Plotino - Tratado 44,23 (VI, 3, 23) — O que é o movimento?

ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 44,23 (VI, 3, 23) — O que é o movimento?

Enéada VI, 3, 23

sábado 18 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Igal

23 Es que el movimiento que hay en las cosas sensibles, infundido por otro, está agitando, propulsando, despertando y empujando las cosas que participan de él, de manera que no se duerman ni permanezcan en identidad, a fín de que así, con su desasosiego y como ajetreo se mantengan en este simulacro de vida. Ahora bien, no hay que confundir el movimiento con las cosas que se mueven: no son los pies el andar, sino la actividad que hay en los pies emanada de la potencia. Ahora bien, como esta potencia permanece invisible, necesariamente no vemos más que los pies en acción, no pies simplemente, como si estuvieran quietos, sino pies acompañados ya de otra cosa, que es invisible, es verdad, pero que, como está en compañía de otra cosa, es vista incidentalmente porque vemos los pies cambiando de lugar y sin reposo. Lo otro, siendo alteración, lo colegimos de la cosa alterada, porque la cualidad ya no es la misma.

—¿Dónde está, pues, el movimiento cuando una cosa mueve otra y cuando va desde su intrínseca potencialidad hasta la actualidad? ¿Está en el moviente?. Entonces, el movido, el que sufre el movimiento, ¿cómo podrá participar del movimiento? ¿O está en el movido? Entonces, ¿por qué el movimiento una vez llegado a él, no se queda en él?

—La respuesta es que el movimiento no debe ni estar desligado del moviente ni estar en él, sino salir de él y pasar al otro, pero estar en este otro sin estar desconectado de aquél, sino pasar del uno al otro como un soplo insuflado en otro. Y así, cuando la potencia motriz es ambulativa, empuja, por así decirlo, y obliga a cambiar de lugar constantemente. Cuando es calefactiva, calienta. Y cuando la potencia, tomando la materia, edifica un ser natural, hay crecimiento; pero cuando otra potencia lo reduce, hay decrecimiento del ser capaz de sufrir reducción disminuyendo. Asimismo, cuando actúa la naturaleza generativa, hay generación; pero cuando aquélla es impotente y prevalece la corruptiva, hay corrupción, no la del nuevo ser generado, sino la del que caminaba a la corrupción. Del mismo modo, hay sanación cuando la potencia sanativa actúa y prevalece, mientras que la potencia contraria produce lo contrario. De donde resulta que la cualidad del movimiento depende no sólo de los sujetos en los que está, sino también de aquellos de los que parte y de aquellos por los que se transmite, y que, cuales son esos factores, tal es la individualidad del movimiento.

Bouillet

XXIII. Le mouvement est pour les choses sensibles, qui reçoivent l’impulsion d’autrui, un stimulus qui les agite, les excite, les presse, les force de ne pas sommeiller dans l’inertie, de ne pas rester les mêmes, mais de présenter une image de la vie par leur agitation et par leurs mutations continuelles. Il ne faut pas d’ailleurs confondre les choses qui se meuvent avec le mouvement : la marche n’est pas les pieds, mais un acte de la puissance qui s’applique aux pieds. Or, cette puissance étant invisible, nous n’apercevons que l’agitation des pieds; nous voyons qu’ils ne sont pas dans le même état que s’ils restaient en place, mais qu’ils ont quelque chose de plus, qui est invisible, il est vrai. Ainsi, étant unie à des objets autres qu’elle-même, la puissance n’est aperçue que par accident, parce qu’on remarque que les pieds changent de lieu et ne se reposent pas. De même, nous ne reconnaissons l’altération dans l’objet altéré que parce que nous n’y trouvons plus la même qualité.

En qui réside le mouvement quand il agit sur un objet, quand de la puissance intérieure il passe à l’acte? Est-ce dans le moteur? Comment ce qui est mû et qui pâtit pourra-t-il le recevoir? Est-ce dans le mobile? Pourquoi ne demeure-t-il pas en lui? Il faut donc que le mouvement ne soit pas séparé du moteur sans cependant être en lui seul, qu’il passe du moteur dans le mobile sans cesser d’être lié au premier, qu’il aille du moteur au mobile, qu’il en soit comme l’influx (πνοή) (105). Quand la puissance motrice produit la locomotion, elle nous donne une impulsion et nous fait changer sans cesse de place ; quand elle est calorifique, elle échauffe; quand, rencontrant une matière, elle lui donne son organisation naturelle, elle produit l’accroissement; quand elle ôte quelque chose à un objet, cet objet décroit parce qu’il est capable de décroître ; enfin, quand c’est la puissance générative qui entre en action, il y a génération ; mais si celle-ci est moins forte que la puissance capable de détruire, il y a destruction, non de ce qui est produit déjà, mais de ce qui se produisait. De même, il y a convalescence dès que la force capable de produire la santé agit et domine; maladie, quand la puissance opposée produit un effet contraire. Il en résulte que le mouvement doit être étudié non-seulement dans les choses où il est produit, mais encore dans celles qui le produisent ou le transmettent; il en résulte encore que la propriété du mouvement consiste à être un mouvement doué de telle ou telle qualité, et à être tel ou tel dans tel ou tel objet.

Guthrie

MOVEMENT FOR SENSE-OBJECTS.

23. For sense-objects, which receive their impulse from without, movement is a stimulus which agitates them, excites them, presses them, prevents them from slumbering in inertia, from remaining the same, and makes them present an image of life by their agitation and continual mutations. Besides, one must not confuse the things that move with movement; walking is not the feet, but an actualization of the power connected with the feet. Now as this power is invisible, we perceive only the agitation of the feet; we see that their present state is quite different from that in which they would have been, had they remained in place, and that they have some addition, which however, is invisible. Thus, being united to objects other than itself, the power is perceived only accidentally, because one notices that the feet change place, and do not rest. Likewise, alteration in the altered object, is recognized only by failure to discover in it the same quality as before.

MOVEMENT AS INFLUX.

What is the seat of a movement acting on an object by passing from internal power to actualization? Is it in the motor? How will that which is moved and which suffers be able to receive it? Is it in the movable element? Why does it not remain in the mover? Movement must therefore be considered as inseparable from the mover, although not exclusively; it must pass from the mover into the mobile (element) without ceasing to be connected with the mover, and it must pass from the mover to the moved like a breath (or influx). When the motive power produces locomotion, it gives us an impulse and makes us change place ceaselessly; when it is calorific, it heats; when, meeting matter, it imparts thereto its natural organization, and produces increase; when it removes something from an object, this object decreases because it is capable thereof; last, when it is the generative power which enters into action, generation occurs; but if this generative power be weaker than the destructive power, there occurs destruction, not of what is already produced, but of what was in the process of production. Likewise, convalescence takes place as soon as the force capable of producing health acts and dominates; and sickness occurs, when the opposite power produces a contrary effect. Consequently, movement must be studied not only in the things in which it is produced, but also in those that produce it or transmit it. The property of movement consists therefore in being a movement endowed with some particular quality, or being something definite in a particular thing.

MacKenna

23. The Motion which acts upon Sensible objects enters from without, and so shakes, drives, rouses and thrusts its participants that they may neither rest nor preserve their identity - and all to the end that they may be caught into that restlessness, that flustering excitability which is but an image of Life.

We must avoid identifying Motion with the objects moved: by walking we do not mean the feet but the activity springing from a potentiality in the feet. Since the potentiality is invisible, we see of necessity only the active feet - that is to say, not feet simply, as would be the case if they were at rest, but something besides feet, something invisible but indirectly seen as an accompaniment by the fact that we observe the feet to be in ever-changing positions and no longer at rest. We infer alteration, on the other hand, from the qualitative change in the thing altered.

Where, then, does Motion reside, when there is one thing that moves and another that passes from an inherent potentiality to actuality? In the mover? How then will the moved, the patient, participate in the motion? In the moved? Then why does not Motion remain in it, once having come? It would seem that Motion must neither be separated from the active principle nor allowed to reside in it; it must proceed from agent to patient without so inhering in the latter as to be severed from the former, passing from one to the other like a breath of wind.

Now, when the potentiality of Motion consists in an ability to walk, it may be imagined as thrusting a man forward and causing him to be continually adopting a different position; when it lies in the capacity to heat, it heats; when the potentiality takes hold of Matter and builds up the organism, we have growth; and when another potentiality demolishes the structure, the result is decay, that which has the potentiality of demolition experiencing the decay. Where the birth-giving principle is active, we find birth; where it is impotent and the power to destroy prevails, destruction takes place - not the destruction of what already exists, but that which intervenes upon the road to existence.

Health comes about in the same way - when the power which produces health is active and predominant; sickness is the result of the opposite power working in the opposite direction.

Thus, Motion is conditioned, not only by the objects in which it occurs, but also by its origins and its course, and it is a distinctive mark of Motion to be always qualified and to take its quality from the moved.