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Plotino - Tratado 5,13 (V, 9, 13) — Há Formas de coisas que não se encontram no sensível?

Enéada V, 9, 13

quarta-feira 15 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 13: Há Formas de coisas que não se encontram no sensível?

  • 1-7. Há uma alma em si diferente da alma e um intelecto em si diferente do Intelecto?
  • 7-13. A alma que está em nós possui certas Formas que não são imagens das Formas no sensível, mas são as Formas mesmo que existem no sensível de uma maneira diferente.
  • 13-19. Se o sensível nada mais é que o visível, é preciso que haja no mundo inteligível não somente as Formas das coisas que existem no sensível, mas muitas outras ainda; se em revanche o sensível compreende também a alma, é preciso que tudo isto que existe no sensível exista também no inteligível.

Míguez

13. Nos queda por decir si en el mundo inteligible se dan sólo los modelos de los seres sensibles o si, al igual que el hombre en sí es diferente del hombre sensible, se dan allí también un Alma en sí diferente del alma y una Inteligencia en sí diferente de la inteligencia. Debemos afirmar en primer lugar que no hay que creer que todas las cosas de aquí son imágenes de unos modelos, ni aun que el alma sea una imagen del alma en sí. Porque un alma se diferencia de otra en razón de su dignidad y es, ya en este mundo, una verdadera alma en sí, aunque no en el mismo grado que en el mundo inteligible. Cada una de las almas verdaderas disfruta de una cierta justicia y sensatez; e incluso hay en nuestras almas una ciencia verdadera, que no es el resultado de imágenes ni de representaciones de las ideas en los objetos sensibles, sino que se basa en el hecho de que las mismas cosas se encuentran allí y aquí, pero de diferente manera. Pues las ideas no se hallan separadas en un cierto lugar, de tal modo que, en cuanto el alma se sustrae al cuerpo, se reúne con aquéllas en el mundo inteligible. Ciertamente, el mundo sensible ocupa un solo lugar, en tanto el mundo inteligible se distribuye por todas partes. Por ello, todo lo que cl alma así dispuesta (percibe) aquí, se encuentra realmente en el mundo inteligible. De suerte que, si consideramos como cosas sensibles las cosas que vemos, hay en el mundo inteligible no tan sólo seres que se corresponden con los del mundo sensible, sino también otros más; aunque, si abarcamos en el universo tanto el alma como lo que se da en el alma, hay aquí verdaderamente todo cuanto hay en el mundo inteligible.

Bouillet

XIII. Il nous reste à dire s’il n’y a dans le monde intelligible que ce qui est dans le monde sensible, ou bien s’il faut distinguer l’âme particulière et l’âme même (αὐτοψυχή), l’intelligence particulière et l’intelligence même (αὐτονοῦς) comme nous avons ci-dessus distingué l’homme particulier et l’homme même.

On ne doit pas regarder toutes les choses qui sont ici-bas comme des images d’archétypes, l’âme d’un homme comme une image de l’âme même. Il y a entre les âmes seulement des degrés divers de dignité : l’âme qui est ici-bas n’est pas l’âme même ; mais, comme elle existe d’une existence réelle, elle doit contenir aussi une certaine sagesse, une certaine justice, une certaine science, qui ne sont pas des images de la sagesse, de la justice et de la science intelligibles, comme les objets sensibles le sont des objets intelligibles, mais qui sont ces mêmes choses placées ici-bas dans des conditions différentes d’existence : car elles ne sont pas circonscrites en un lieu. Aussi, quand l’âme sort du corps, elle conserve ces choses en elle : car le monde sensible n’existe que dans un lieu déterminé, tandis que le monde intelligible existe partout; donc, tout ce que l’âme renferme en elle ici-bas est aussi dans le monde intelligible. Par conséquent si, par choses sensibles, on entend les choses visibles, non-seulement les choses qui sont dans le monde sensible sont dans le monde intelligible, mais il y en a d’autres encore là-haut. Si, au contraire, on comprend dans le monde sensible l’âme et ce qui lui appartient, toutes les choses qui sont là-haut sont aussi ici-bas.

Guthrie

BESIDES IDEAS OF INDIVIDUAL SOULS AND INTELLIGENCE, THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD CONTAINS THE SOUL ITSELF AND INTELLIGENCE ITSELF.

13. It remains for us to study whether the intelligible world contains only what is in the sense-world, or whether we should distinguish from the individual soul the Soul itself, from the particular intelligence, Intelligence itself, as we have above distinguished the particular man from Man himself. We should not consider all things here below as images of archetypes, for instance, the soul of a man as the image of the Soul herself. Only degrees of dignity differentiate souls; but these souls are not the Soul itself. As the Soul itself exists really, it must also contain a certain wisdom, justice and science, which are not images of wisdom, justice, and intelligible science, as sense-objects are images of intelligible entities, but which are these very entities located here below in entirely different conditions of existence; for they are not locally circumscribed. Therefore when the soul issues from the body, she preserves these things within herself; for the sense-world exists only in a determinate place, while the intelligible world exists everywhere; therefore all that the soul contains here below is also in the intelligible world. Consequently if, by "sense-objects" we really mean "visible" things, then indeed the intelligible world contains entities not present in this sense-world. If, on the contrary, we include within the "sense-world" the soul and all she implies, then all things that are above are present here below also.

Taylor

XIII. It remains to consider whether what the sensible world alone contains is in the intelligible world, or whether as man himself is different from the sensible man, so with respect to soul, soul itself is different from the soul which is here, and intellect itself from the human intellect. In the first place, therefore, it must be said, that it is not proper to think that all things which are here, are images of archetypes; or that the human soul is the image of soul itself, but that here also one soul differs from another in dignity. Perhaps, however, soul, so far as it is here, is not soul itself. But since each [rational] soul has a real subsistence, as likewise have justice and temperance, there is also in our souls true science and not images only, nor merely the similitudes of intelligibles, as in the sensible region. For true science, justice, and temperance themselves exist here, though after another manner than in the intelligible world. For they are denned in a certain place. So that where the soul emerges from the body, there also these subsist. For the sensible world, indeed, is in one place only; but the intelligible world is every where. Such things, therefore, as a soul of this kind possesses here, these things also are there. So that if the things which are in the sensible world, are assumed to be those which are in the number of visible objects, not only the natures which are in the regions of sense are there, but also more than these. But if among the natures which are said to be in the world, soul, and what soul contains are comprehended, then all such things are here as subsist there.

MacKenna

13. It remains to decide whether only what is known in sense exists There or whether, on the contrary, as Absolute-Man differs from individual man, so there is in the Supreme an Absolute-Soul differing from Soul and an Absolute-Intellect differing from Intellectual-Principle.

It must be stated at the outset that we cannot take all that is here to be image of archetype, or Soul to be an image of Absolute-Soul: one soul, doubtless, ranks higher than another, but here too, though perhaps not as identified with this realm, is the Absolute-Soul.

Every soul, authentically a soul, has some form of rightness and moral wisdom; in the souls within ourselves there is true knowing: and these attributes are no images or copies from the Supreme, as in the sense-world, but actually are those very originals in a mode peculiar to this sphere. For those Beings are not set apart in some defined place; wherever there is a soul that has risen from body, there too these are: the world of sense is one - where, the Intellectual Kosmos is everywhere. Whatever the freed soul attains to here, that it is There.

Thus, if by the content of the sense-world we mean simply the visible objects, then the Supreme contains not only what is in the realm of sense but more: if in the content of the kosmos we mean to include Soul and the Soul-things, then all is here that is There.