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Plotino - Tratado 5,12 (V, 9, 12) — Há Formas dos indivíduos?

Enéada V, 9, 12

quarta-feira 15 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 12: Há Formas dos indivíduos?

  • 1-4. As Formas dos universais: existe uma Forma do homem, não uma Forma de Sócrates.
  • 4. Existe uma Forma do homem individual?
  • 5-11. As diferenças individuais dependem também da matéria.

Míguez

12. No obstante, si en el mundo inteligible se da (una idea) del hombre, también se dará una idea del ser razonable y del creador artístico, y las artes, a su vez, tendrán ahí un lugar, puesto que son producciones de la inteligencia.

Digamos, ante todo, que hay ideas de las cosas universales, no de Sócrates  , sino del hombre. Pero, en cuanto al hombre, debemos considerar si hay una idea del hombre individual. La individualidad descansa en el hecho de que los rasgos no son los mismos en uno y otro hombre; así, por ejemplo, uno tiene la nariz chata y otro, en cambio, la tiene aguileña. Por tanto, hemos de considerar estas dos formas de nariz como diferencias que se dan en la especie humana, diferencias que también encontramos en los animales. El grado mayor o menor en que aquéllas se presenten ha de atribuirse a la materia. Del mismo modo, las diferencias en el color de la piel provienen en unos casos de la razón seminal y en otros de la materia y de la diversidad de lugar.

Bouillet

XII. Si le monde intelligible contient l’idée de l’homme, il renferme aussi celle de l’homme raisonnable et de l’artiste, par conséquent l’idée des arts qui sont engendrés par l’intelligence. Il faut donc admettre que l’on trouve dans le monde intelligible les idées des universaux (τὰ καθ’ ὅλου), l’idée de l’homme même, par exemple, et non celle de Socrate  . Il est néanmoins nécessaire d’examiner si l’on ne trouve pas aussi là-haut l’idée de l’homme individuel (ὁ καθ’ ἕκαστα) (42), c’est-à-dire de l’homme considéré avec les choses qui diffèrent dans chaque individu (43) : car l’un a un nez aquilin, par exemple, et l’autre un nez plat. On doit admettre que ces différences sont impliquées dans l’idée de l’homme, comme il y a des différences dans l’idée de l’animal; mais c’est de la matière que vient que l’un a tel nez aquilin et l’autre tel nez plat. De même, parmi les variétés de couleur, les unes sont contenues dans la raison séminale, les autres dérivent de la matière et du lieu.

Guthrie

THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD CONTAINS ONLY UNIVERSAL IDEAS; PARTICULARITIES ARE DERIVED FROM MATTER.

12. If the intelligible world contains the idea of Man, it must also contain that of the reasonable man, and of the artist; and consequently the idea of the arts that are begotten by Intelligence. We must therefore insist that the intelligible world contains the ideas of the universals, the idea of Man as such, and not, for instance, that of Socrates  . Still we shall have to decide whether the intelligible world does not also contain the idea of the individual man, that is, of the man considered with the things that differ in each individual; for one may have a Roman nose and the other a pug nose. These differences are indeed implied within the idea of man, just as there are differences within the idea of animal. But the differences between a Roman or a snub nose are derived from matter. Likewise, amidst the varieties of colors, some are contained within the seminal reason, while others are derived from matter and space.

Taylor

XII. If, however, the idea of man is there, the ideas of the rational and the artificial are also there, and likewise the arts which are the progeny of intellect. It is also requisite to assert, that the forms of universals are there, i.e. not of Socrates  , but of man; though it must be considered with respect to man, whether the form of a particular man is there, not because he is the same with another man, but because one man has a flat, and another an aquiline nose. These nasal differences, however, must be placed in the form of man [as certain differences of forms], just as there are differences of animals. But that one man has an aquiline nose of this, and another of that kind, originates from matter. With respect to the differences of colours, also, some of them exist in their productive principles, but others are produced by matter and difference of place.

MacKenna

12. It should however be added that if the Idea of man exists in the Supreme, there must exist the Idea of reasoning man and of man with his arts and crafts; such arts as are the offspring of intellect Must be There.

It must be observed that the Ideas will be of universals; not of Socrates   but of Man: though as to man we may enquire whether the individual may not also have place There. Under the heading of individuality there is to be considered the repetition of the same feature from man to man, the simian type, for example, and the aquiline: the aquiline and the simian must be taken to be differences in the Idea of Man as there are different types of the animal: but Matter also has its effect in bringing about the degree of aquilinity. Similarly with difference of complexion, determined partly by the Reason-Principle, partly by Matter and by diversity of place.