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Plotino - Tratado 5,10 (V, 9, 10) — As Formas e o mundo inteligível

Enéada V, 9, 10

quarta-feira 15 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 10: As Formas e o mundo inteligível.

  • 1-6. De quais coisas sensíveis há Formas no mundo inteligível?
  • 6-15. No mundo inteligível, posto que não há espaço, tempo e devir, as Formas, eternas e sem em ato, são somente realidade, realidade inteligível e vida.
  • 15-20. As Formas das realidades "negativas": o mal.

Míguez

10. Todo lo que como forma existe en el mundo sensible, proviene del mundo inteligible. Todo lo que no es forma, no proviene de él. En el mundo inteligible no hay nada que sea contrario a la naturaleza, lo mismo que en el arte no hay nada contrario al arte, ni en las simientes forma alguna de claudicación. Porque la claudicación unas veces es de nacimiento, por impotencia de la misma razón, y otras, en cambio, es tan sólo accidental, por un daño de la forma. Cualidades y cantidades armónicas, números y magnitudes, generaciones y disposiciones, acciones y pasiones, movimientos y situaciones estables, todo, en fin, y tanto en su conjunto como en detalle, se ordena a la naturaleza en el mundo inteligible. En lugar del tiempo hay que contar con la eternidad. El lugar, en el mundo inteligible, sólo significa interioridad intelectual, ya que, en esa región todo se da a la vez, y lo que se puede percibir es una esencia intelectual. Cada uno de los seres tiene ahí participación en la vida, trátese por ejemplo de lo mismo o de lo otro, del movimiento o del reposo, de lo que se mueve o de lo que está inmóvil, de la sustancia o de la cualidad, siendo como es todo sustancia. Porque cada uno de los seres está en acto y no en potencia; de manera que la cualidad de un ser no aparece nunca separada de su sustancia.

¿Existen solamente en el mundo inteligible los seres que se corresponden con los seres sensibles o se dan todavía otros seres? En primer lugar, convendría examinar los objetos producidos por el arte, porque en esa región el mal no cuenta en absoluto. El mal, en nuestro mundo, proviene de una necesidad, de una privación o de una insuficiencia; es la disposición de una materia o de algo semejante a la materia que no logra alcanzar la forma.

Bouillet

X. Donc, dans le monde sensible, toutes les choses qui sont des formes procèdent de l’Intelligence ; celles qui ne sont pas des formes n’en procèdent pas. C’est pourquoi on ne trouve dans le monde intelligible aucune des choses qui sont contraires à la nature, pas plus qu’on ne trouve dans les arts ce qui est contraire à l’art. Ainsi, la raison séminale ne contient pas les défauts, celui de boiter, par exemple. Ces défauts ne se produisent que dans la génération, quand la raison ne domine pas la matière : car tout défaut de forme est un accident (35).

Les qualités conformes à la nature, les quantités, les nombres, les grandeurs, les états, les actions et les passions naturelles, les mouvements et les repos, soit généraux, soit particuliers, sont au nombre des choses qui se trouvent dans le monde intelligible, où le temps est remplacé par l’éternité (36) et l’espace par la propriété qu’ont les intelligibles d’être les uns dans les autres. Comme dans le monde intelligible toutes choses sont ensemble, quelle que soit celle que vous preniez, elle est essence, nature intellectuelle et vivante ; elle est identité et différence, mouvement et repos (37); elle est ce qui se meut et ce qui est en repos, elle est essence et qualité, elle est tout en un mot. Là, chaque essence est en acte au lieu d’être seulement en puissance; par conséquent elle n’est pas séparée de la qualité.

Mais n’y a-t-il dans le monde intelligible que ce qui est contenu dans le monde sensible, ou bien y a-t-il encore autre chose? — Considérons les arts sous ce rapport. D’abord, il n’y a dans le monde intelligible aucune imperfection. S’il y a du mal ici-bas, il provient du manque, de la privation, du défaut; il est un état de la matière ou de toute chose semblable à la matière qui n’a pas bien reçu la forme (38).

Guthrie

IN THE SENSE-WORLD ONLY THOSE THINGS THAT ARE FORMS PROCEED FROM INTELLIGENCE.

10. Therefore, in the sense-world, all the things that are forms proceed from intelligence; those which are not forms do not proceed therefrom. That is, in the intelligible world we do not find any of the things that are contrary to nature, any more than we find what is contrary to the arts in the arts themselves. Thus the seminal reason does not contain the defects, such as limping would be in a body. Congenital lameness is due to the reason’s failure to dominate matter, while accidental lameness is due to deterioration of the form (idea?).

NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE DERIVED FROM THE CATEGORIES IN THE INTELLIGIBLE.

The qualities that are natural, quantities, numbers, magnitudes, states, actions and natural experiences, movements and recuperations, either general or particular, are among the contents of the intelligible world, where time is replaced by eternity, and space is replaced by the "telescoping" of intelligible entities (that are within each other). As all entities are together in the intelligible world, whatever entity you select (by itself) is intellectual and living "being," identity and difference, movement and rest; it is what moves, and what is at rest; it is "being," and quality; that is, it is all. There every essence is in actualization, instead of merely being in potentiality; consequently it is not separated from quality.

THE INTELLIGIBLE WORLD FAILS TO CONTAIN EARTHLY IMPERFECTIONS.

Does the intelligible world contain only what is found in the sense-world, or does it contain anything additional? .... Let us consider the arts, in this respect. To begin with, the intelligible world does not contain any imperfection. Evils here below come from lack, privation, omission; it is a state of matter, or of anything similar to matter, which failed to be completely assimilated.

Taylor

X. Such things, therefore, as are forms in the sensible world, are derived from the intelligible world ; but such things as are not forms do not originate from thence. Hence, nothing preternatural is there; as neither is there in the arts any thing which is a deviation from art, or lameness in the seeds of animals. For lameness of the feet which takes place in the generation of an animal, arises from the productive seminal principle not vanquishing [the seminal matter]. But the injury which the form sustains is a casual circumstance. According qualities, therefore, and quantities, numbers and magnitudes, habitudes, actions and passions, which are according to nature, and motions and permanencies both .universal and particular, are among the number of things which are in the intelligible world. Instead of time, however, eternity is there. But place is there intellectually, being the [impartible] subsistence of one thing in another. Hence, since all things there exist simultaneously, whichever of them you assume is essence, is intellectual, and participates of life. Sameness, also, and difference, motion and permanency, that which is moved, and that which is stable, essence and quality, are there, and all things there are essence. For each thing is being in energy, and not in capacity; so that quality is not separated from each essence. Are, therefore, those things alone these which the sensible world contains, or are there likewise many other things ? Prior to the discussion of this, however, the things pertaining to art must be considered. For there is no paradigm of evil there. For evil here happens from indigence, privation, and defect. And evil is the passion of matter frustrated of form, and of that which is assimilated to matter.

MacKenna

10. All, then, that is present in the sense realm as Idea comes from the Supreme. But what is not present as Idea, does not. Thus of things conflicting with nature, none is There: the inartistic is not contained in the arts; lameness is not in the seed; for a lame leg is either inborn through some thwarting of the Reason-principle or is a marring of the achieved form by accident. To that Intellectual Kosmos belong qualities, accordant with Nature, and quantities; number and mass; origins and conditions; all actions and experiences not against nature; movement and repose, both the universals and the particulars: but There time is replaced by eternity and space by its intellectual equivalent, mutual inclusiveness.

In that Intellectual Kosmos, where all is one total, every entity that can be singled out is an intellective essence and a participant in life: thus, identity and difference, movement and rest with the object resting or moving, essence and quality, all have essential existence. For every real being must be in actuality not merely in potentiality and therefore the nature of each essence is inherent in it.

This suggests the question whether the Intellectual Kosmos contains the forms only of the things of sense or of other existents as well. But first we will consider how it stands with artistic creations: there is no question of an ideal archetype of evil: the evil of this world is begotten of need, privation, deficiency, and is a condition peculiar to Matter distressed and to what has come into likeness with Matter.