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Plotino - Tratado 32,3 (V, 5, 3) — O Intelecto é um segundo deus e vem do primeiro deus

Enéada V, 5, 3

terça-feira 14 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 3: O Intelecto é um segundo deus e vem do primeiro deus.

  • 1-4: O Intelecto é todas as realidades e a verdade; ele representa o segundo deus
  • 4-24: Acima do Intelecto reina um primeiro deus, o verdadeiro rei

Míguez

3. Henos aquí, por tanto, ante esa naturaleza única, la Inteligencia, que es la totalidad de los seres y la verdad. Naturaleza única que es un gran dios, y mejor todavía, no un dios determinado, sino el dios universal que juzga digno el ser todas las cosas. Esta naturaleza es Dios, pero un dios de segundo rango, que se manifiesta con anterioridad al Primero y antes, incluso, de que veamos a Aquél. El Dios mas alto asienta y se mantiene sobre ella como sobre un bello trono, que aparece dependiente de El. Y, cuando avanza, no lo hace sobre un ser inanimado, y ni siquiera inmediatamente sobre el alma, sino que, delante de El ha de encontrar un ser extraordinariamente bello, al modo como, delante del gran rey y a manera de escolta, se sitúan primero los personajes inferiores, luego los hombres de más alta dignidad y, ya por último, los que están más próximos al rey y los que, después de él, reciben los máximos honores. A continuación de estos hombres se destaca la figura del gran rey, que es objeto de la súplica y la veneración de todos aquellos que no decidieron retirarse dándose cumplidamente por contentos con haber contemplado su escolta. Aquí, realmente, uno es el rey, y los otros muy distintos los que marchan delante de él. Y, con todo, el rey de que hablamos no ejerce poder sobre súbditos extraños, sino que tiene la soberanía más justa y la más adecuada a la naturaleza. Tiene, en efecto la realeza verdadera, porque es el rey de la verdad, que domina por naturaleza a todos los seres que ha engendrado y que alcanzan la condición de dioses. Con razón podrá llamársele rey de reyes y padre de los dioses. Zeus constituye entre nosotros una imitación suya, puesto que no se ha mantenido en la contemplación de su padre, sino que se ha unido al acto por el que su abuelo ha establecido el ser.

Bouillet

III. Ainsi l’Intelligence, avec les essences et la vérité, ne constitue pour nous qu’une seule et même nature. Elle est un grand Dieu, ou plutôt elle n’est pas tel ou tel Dieu, mais elle est quelque Dieu que ce soit : car elle juge digne d’elle d’être toutes ces choses. Si cette nature est Dieu, elle n’est cependant que le second Dieu [l’Intelligence], qui se manifeste à nous avant que nous voyions le Dieu suprême [l’Un] (05). Elle est le trône magnifique qu’il s’est donné et où il est assis immobile. Car il ne fallait pas que ce Dieu suprême s’avançât vers nous porté sur quelque chose d’inanimé, ni qu’il se manifestât immédiatement dans le sein même de l’Âme universelle, mais qu’il annonçât son approche en se faisant précéder par une éclatante beauté, comme il convenait à un grand Roi. Quand on s’élève à lui, on rencontre d’abord les choses qui par leur dignité inférieure sont placées aux premiers rangs du cortège, ensuite celles qui sont plus grandes et plus belles : autour du Roi se tiennent celles qui sont vraiment royales, et celles qui viennent après lui ont aussi leur prix. Enfin, après toutes ces choses, le grand Roi lui-même apparaît tout à coup à notre vue ; alors se prosternent et l’adorent ceux qui ne se sont pas déjà retirés, satisfaits d’avoir vu ce qui le précédait. Une différence profonde distingue le grand Roi de ceux qui le précèdent. Il ne faut cependant pas croire qu’il les gouverne comme un homme gouverne d’autres hommes. Il possède l’empire le plus juste et le plus naturel, la véritable royauté parce qu’il est le roi de la vérité, qu’il est le maître naturel de tous ces êtres qu’il a engendrés et qui forment son divin cortège. Il est le Roi du roi et des rois [c’est-à-dire le Roi de l’Intelligence et des intelligibles] ; il est appelé justement le Père des dieux. Jupiter même [qui est l’Ame universelle] l’imite sous ce rapport qu’il ne s’arrête pas à la contemplation de son père [qui est l’Intelligence], qu’il s’élève jusqu’à l’acte de son grand-père [qui est l’Un], dont il pénètre l’essence (εἰς ὑπόστσιν οὐσίας).

Guthrie

SUPREME INTELLIGENCE IS DIVINITY AND SUPREME ROYALTY.

3. Thus Intelligence, with the essences and truth, form but one and single nature for us. It forms some great divinity; or rather, it is not some certain divinity, but total (divinity); for Intelligence judges it worthy of itself to constitute all these entities. Though this nature be divine, it is nevertheless but the second divinity; which manifests itself to us before we see the (supreme divinity, Unity). Intelligence forms the magnificent throne which (the Supreme) formed for Himself, and whereon He is seated immovably. For it was not adequate that something inanimate should either develop within the breast of the divinity, nor support the supreme Divinity when advancing towards us.

ALLEGORY OF THE ROYAL PROCESSION.

So great a King deserved to have dazzling beauty as the (ostentatious) van of his (royal) procession. In the course of rising towards Him are first met the things which by their inferior dignity are classed among the first ranks of the procession; later those that are greater and more beautiful; around the king stand those that are truly royal, while even those that follow Him are of value. Then, after all these things, suddenly breaks in upon our view the King himself; and we who have remained behind after the departure of those who were satisfied with a view of the preliminaries, fall down and worship. A profound difference distinguishes the great King from all that precedes Him. But it must not be supposed that He governs them as one man governs another. He possesses the most just and natural sovereignty. He possesses real royalty because He is the King of truth. He is the natural master of all these beings that He has begotten, and which compose His divine body-guard. He is the king of the king and of the kings, and is justly called Father of the divinities. Jupiter himself (who is the universal Soul), imitates Him in this respect that he does not stop at the contemplation of his father, (who is Intelligence), and he rises to the actualization of his grandfather, and he penetrates into the hypostatic substance of His being.

MacKenna

3. Thus we have here one identical Principle, the Intellect, which is the universe of authentic beings, the Truth: as such it is a great god or, better, not a god among gods but the Godhead entire. It is a god, a secondary god manifesting before there is any vision of that other, the Supreme which rests over all, enthroned in transcendence upon that splendid pediment, the Nature following close upon it.

The Supreme in its progress could never be borne forward upon some soulless vehicle nor even directly upon the soul: it will be heralded by some ineffable beauty: before the great King in his progress there comes first the minor train, then rank by rank the greater and more exalted, closer to the King the kinglier; next his own honoured company until, last among all these grandeurs, suddenly appears the Supreme Monarch himself, and all - unless indeed for those who have contented themselves with the spectacle before his coming and gone away - prostrate themselves and hail him.

In that royal progress the King is of another order from those that go before him, but the King in the Supreme is no ruler over externs; he holds that most just of governances, rooted in nature, the veritable kingship, for he is King of Truth, holding sway by all reason over a dense offspring his own, a host that shares his divinity, King over a king and over kings and even more justly called father of Gods.

[Interpolation: Zeus (Universal Soul) is in this a symbol of him, Zeus who is not content with the contemplation of his father (Kronos, divine Intellect) but looks to that father’s father (to Ouranos, the Transcendent) as what may be called the divine energy working to the establishment of a real being.]