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Plotino - Tratado 6,6 (IV, 8, 6) — A potência herdada do Uno se estende à totalidade do real.

Enéada IV, 8, 6

domingo 15 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulo 6: A potência herdada do Uno se estende à totalidade do real.

  • 1-10. Da mesma forma que o Uno engendra necessariamente uma realidade depois dele, a alma deve do mesmo modo engendrar o corpo.
  • 10-16. A potência que vem do Uno estende-se a todas as coisas.
  • 16-23. A alternativa concernente a matéria: seja eterna e não engendrada, seja ela engendrada por causas que a precedem.
  • 23-28. O sensível manifesta o inteligível e as duas ordem de realidade são solidárias.

Míguez

6. Conviene, por tanto, que no exista una sola cosa, porque, de otro modo, todo permanecería oculto al no tener en el Uno forma alguna. Ni existiría ningún ser, si el Uno permaneciese inmóvil en sí mismo, ni habría la multiplicidad de seres que provienen del Uno, caso de no darse después de Él esa procesión de seres que tienen el rango de almas. E, igualmente, no conviene que las almas existan solas, esto es, sin hacer manifiesto lo que ellas mismas producen. Porque es propio de toda naturaleza dejar algo tras de sí y desenvolverse a partir de una cierta simiente o principio indivisible hasta llegar a un término sensible. El término primero permanecerá en su lugar apropiado, pero lo que de él se siga tendrá que haberse originado de una potencia invisible que ya existía en aquél, la cual no deberá verse inmovilizada, o acaso limitada, tan sólo por malevolencia. Esa potencia tendrá que avanzar siempre, hasta que, dentro de lo que sea posible, pueda llegar al último de los seres en razón a lo inconmensurable de su poder, que da todo lo que posee y no deja pasar nada sin una parte de sí misma. Porque nada impide que un ser tenga la parte de bien que él mismo sea capaz de obtener. Por tanto, si la naturaleza de la materia existe siempre, no es posible que no participe del bien, difusible a todas las cosas, en tanto sea capaz de recibirlo. Si la producción de la materia es consecuencia necesaria de las causas anteriores a ella, no podrá permanecer como separada de su principio, cual si ese principio por el que recibe la existencia se viese detenido e imposibilitado de llegar hasta ella. Pues lo que hay de más hermoso en los seres sensibles es una demostración, no sólo de lo que hay de mejor en los seres inteligibles, sino también de su poder y de su bondad. Todo se reparte, desde siempre, en realidades inteligibles y realidades sensibles. Las primeras existen por sí mismas, en tanto las segundas reciben eternamente la existencia por su participación en aquéllas, imitando, en la medida de lo posible, la naturaleza inteligible.

Bouillet

[VI] L’Un ne devait pas exister seul : car, si l’Un demeurait renfermé en lui-même, toutes choses resteraient cachées dans l’Un sans avoir de forme, et nul des êtres ne posséderait l’existence ; par conséquent, la pluralité même constituée par les êtres nés de l’Un n’existerait pas, si de ces êtres ne sortaient par voie de procession (πρόδος) les natures inférieures, destinées par leur rang à être des âmes ; de même, il fallait que les âmes n’existassent pas seulement, mais encore qu’elles révélassent ce qu’elles étaient capables d’engendrer. En effet, il est naturel à chaque essence de produire quelque chose au-dessous d’elle, de le tirer d’elle-même par un développement semblable à celui d’une semence, développement dans lequel un principe indivisible procède à la production d’un objet sensible, et où ce qui précède demeure à sa propre place en même temps qu’il engendre ce qui suit par un pouvoir ineffable, essentiel aux natures intelligibles (39). Or, comme ce pouvoir ne devait pas être arrêté ni circonscrit dans son action par jalousie (40), il fallait qu’il y eût une procession continue (χωρεῖν αἐί), jusqu’à ce que, de degré en degré, toutes choses fussent descendues jusqu’aux dernières limites du possible (41) : car c’est le caractère d’une puissance inépuisable de communiquer ses dons à toutes choses, de ne pas souffrir qu’aucune d’elles en soit déshéritée, puisqu’il n’y a rien qui empêche chacune d’elles de participer à la nature du Bien dans la mesure où elle en est capable. La matière ayant existé éternellement, il était impossible que, dès qu’elle existait, elle ne participât pas à ce qui communique le bien à toutes les choses dans la mesure où elles sont capables de le recevoir [c’est-à-dire à la forme (42)]. Si la génération de la matière a été la conséquence nécessaire de principes antérieurs, il ne fallait cependant pas qu’elle fût totalement privée du bien par l’impuissance où elle se trouvait primitivement, quand la cause qui lui a communiqué gratuitement l’être demeurait renfermée en elle-même.

Ainsi, c’est la beauté des choses sensibles qui révèle l’excellence, la puissance et la bonté des essences intelligibles, et il y a une connexion éternelle entre les essences intelligibles, qui existent par elles-mêmes, et les choses sensibles, qui en tiennent éternellement l’être par participation et qui imitent la nature intelligible autant qu’elles le peuvent.

Guthrie

CONTINUOUS PROCESSION NECESSARY TO THE SUPREME.

6. Unity was not to exist alone; for if unity remained self-enclosed, all things would remain hidden in unity without having any form, and no beings would achieve existence. Consequently, even if constituted by beings born of unity, plurality would not exist, unless the inferior natures, by their rank destined to be souls, issued from those beings by the way of procession. Likewise, it was not sufficient for souls to exist, they also had to reveal what they were capable of begetting. It is likewise natural for each essence to produce something beneath it, to draw it out from itself by a development similar to that of a seed, a development in which an indivisible principle proceeds to the production of a sense-object, and where that which precedes remains in its own place at the same time as it begets that which follows by an inexpressible power, which is essential to intelligible natures. Now as this power was not to be stopped or circumscribed in its actions by jealousy, there was need of a continuous procession until, from degree to degree, all things had descended to the extreme limits of what was possible; for it is the characteristic of an inexhaustible power to communicate all its gifts to everything, and not to permit any of them to be disinherited, since there is nothing which hinders any of them from participating in the nature of the Good in the measure that it is capable of doing so. Since matter has existed from all eternity, it was impossible that from the time since it existed, it should not participate in that which communicates goodness to all things according to their receptivity thereof. If the generation of matter were the necessary consequence of anterior principles, still it must not be entirely deprived of the good by its primitive impotence, when the cause which gratuitously communicated "being" to it remained self-enclosed.

SENSE-OBJECTS ARE NECESSARY AS REVEALERS OF THE ETERNAL.

The excellence, power and goodness of intelligible (essences) are therefore revealed by sense-objects; and there is an eternal connection between intelligible (entities) that are self-existent, and sense-objects, which eternally derive their existence therefrom by participation, and which imitate intelligible nature to the extent of their ability.

MacKenna

6. Something besides a unity there must be or all would be indiscernibly buried, shapeless within that unbroken whole: none of the real beings [of the Intellectual Kosmos] would exist if that unity remained at halt within itself: the plurality of these beings, offspring of the unity, could not exist without their own nexts taking the outward path; these are the beings holding the rank of souls.

In the same way the outgoing process could not end with the souls, their issue stifled: every Kind must produce its next; it must unfold from some concentrated central principle as from a seed, and so advance to its term in the varied forms of sense. The prior in its being will remain unalterably in the native seat; but there is the lower phase, begotten to it by an ineffable faculty of its being, native to soul as it exists in the Supreme.

To this power we cannot impute any halt, any limit of jealous grudging; it must move for ever outward until the universe stands accomplished to the ultimate possibility. All, thus, is produced by an inexhaustible power giving its gift to the universe, no part of which it can endure to see without some share in its being.

There is, besides, no principle that can prevent anything from partaking, to the extent of its own individual receptivity in the Nature of Good. If therefore Matter has always existed, that existence is enough to ensure its participation in the being which, according to each receptivity, communicates the supreme good universally: if on the contrary, Matter has come into being as a necessary sequence of the causes preceding it, that origin would similarly prevent it standing apart from the scheme as though it were out of reach of the principle to whose grace it owes its existence.

In sum: The loveliness that is in the sense-realm is an index of the nobleness of the Intellectual sphere, displaying its power and its goodness alike: and all things are for ever linked; the one order Intellectual in its being, the other of sense; one self-existent, the other eternally taking its being by participation in that first, and to the full of its power reproducing the Intellectual nature.