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Plotino - Tratado 28,38 (IV, 4, 38) — Resultados

Enéada IV, 4, 38

quinta-feira 12 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Capítulos 30-45: A influência dos astros é devida à simpatia.

  • Cap 37-38: Os efeitos
  • Cap 37: Efeitos ordinários e extraordinários
  • Cap 38: Resultados
    

Míguez

38. Todo lo que proviene del cielo  , sin ser movido por ninguna otra parte del universo  , esto es, todo lo que en general proviene de lo alto y aun, si acaso, lo que es resultado de alguna otra cosa, como por ejemplo de simples rogativas o de cantos verificados conforme a ciertas reglas, todo esto, decimos, no debe ser atribuido a las cosas del cielo, sino más bien a la naturaleza de la acción misma.

Todo lo que es provechoso a la vida o proporciona alguna utilidad debe ser considerado como una donación, que va precisamente de las partes mayores a las más pequeñas. Cuando se dice que (los astros) tienen una influencia perniciosa en la generación de los animales, es porque el sujeto no ha podido recibir el bien que le fue dado. Porque un ser animado no nace simplemente: nace para un fin y en un determinado lugar, y conviene que sufra la influencia adecuada a su naturaleza. Las mezclas, además hacen también mucho, dado que cada (astro  ) ofrece algo beneficioso para la vida. Aunque podría ocurrir, en algún caso, que lo que es naturalmente ventajoso, no lo fuese en la realidad, ya que el orden del universo no da siempre a los seres lo que cada uno de ellos quiere. Nosotros mismos añadimos muchas cosas a los dones que se nos otorgan.

Y, sin embargo, todas las cosas se entrelazan y componen una sinfonía maravillosa. Vienen verdaderamente unas de otras, y aun de sus contrarias, porque todas provienen de un solo ser. Si algo falta para su perfección en los seres engendrados, atribúyase a la imperfección de su forma, que no ha podido dominar a la materia. Ello explica, por ejemplo, que algunos seres carezcan de la excelencia de linaje, por cuya privación se ven abocados a la fealdad.

De modo que unas cosas son producidas por los seres de lo alto, otras son debidas a la naturaleza del sujeto y otras, en fin, son añadidas por los mismos seres en los que se dan. Como todas las cosas responden a un orden y convergen a un mismo fin, pueden ser realmente anunciadas. Ciertamente, la virtud no tiene dueño, pero sus actos aparecen entramados en el orden universal  , porque las cosas sensibles dependen de las cosas inteligibles, y las cosas de este universo de seres verdaderamente más divinos que ellas. Así, pues, lo sensible   participa en lo inteligible.

Bouillet

XXXVIII. Les choses qui proviennent de l’univers sans que leur production soit provoquée par personne ont pour cause en général la vie végétative de l’univers. Quant aux choses dont la production est provoquée par quelqu’un, soit par de simples vœux, soit par des enchantements composés avec art, elles doivent être rapportées, non à quelque astre, mais à la nature même de ce qui est produit. 1°Pour les choses qui sont nécessaires à la vie ou qui servent à quelque autre usage, il faut les attribuer à la bonté des astres ; c’est un don qu’une partie plus puissante fait à une autre qui est plus faible. Si l’on dit que les astres exercent quelque effet fâcheux sur la génération des animaux, c’est alors que la substance n’est pas capable de recevoir ce qui lui est donné : car l’effet n’est pas produit absolument, mais relativement à tel sujet et à telle condition ; il faut que ce qui pâtit et que ce qui doit pâtir aient une nature déterminée. 2° Les mélanges exercent aussi une grande influence, parce que chaque être fournit quelque chose d’utile pour la vie. Il peut d’ailleurs arriver quelque chose de bon à une personne sans le concours d’êtres qui soient utiles par leur nature. 3° La coordination de l’univers ne donne pas toujours à chacun ce qu’il désire. 4° D’ailleurs, nous ajoutons nous-mêmes beaucoup à ce qui nous est donné. 5° Toutes les choses n’en sont pas moins embrassées dans une même unité; elles forment une admirable harmonie; bien plus, elles dérivent les unes des autres quoiqu’elles proviennent de contraires. Toutes en effet sont les parties d’un seul animal  . Si quelqu’une des choses engendrées est imparfaite parce qu’elle n’est pas complètement formée, c’est que, la mati  ère n’étant pas entièrement domptée, la chose engendrée dégénère et tombe dans la difformité (113).

Ainsi, certaines choses sont produites par les astres, d’autres découlent de la nature de la substance, d’autres enfin sont ajoutées par les êtres eux-mêmes.

Guthrie

PRODUCTION IS DUE TO SOME PHYSICAL SOUL, NOT TO ANY ASTROLOGICAL POWER.

38. Things which arise from the universe without the incitation of somebody are generally caused by the vegetative life of the universe. As to the things whose production is due to somebody, either by simple wishes, or by cunning enchantments, they should be ascribed not to some star, but to the very nature of that which is produced. 1. Of course, the necessaries of life, or what serves some other use, should be attributed to the goodness of the stars; it is a gift made by a stronger part to a weaker one. Any harmful effect on the generation of animals exercised by the stars must depend on their substance’s inability to receive what has been given them; for the effect is not produced absolutely, but relatively to some subject or condition, for that which «suffers» or is to «suffer» must have a determinate nature. 2. Mixtures also exert a great influence, because each being furnishes something useful to life. Moreover, something good might happen   to a person without the assistance of beings which by nature would seem useful. 3. The coordination of the universe does not always give to each person what he desires. 4. Besides, we ourselves add much to what has been given to us. 5. All things are not any the less embraced in a same unity; they form an admirable harmony; besides, they are derived from each other, though originating from contraries; for indeed all things are parts of a single animal. If any one of these begotten things is imperfect because it is not completely formed, the fact is that matter not being entirely subdued, the begotten thing degenerates and falls into deformity. Thus some things are produced by the stars, others are derived from the nature of substance, while others are added by the beings themselves.

MacKenna

38. Whatever springs automatically from the All out of that distinctive life of its own, and, in addition to that self-moving activity, whatever is due to some specific agency - for example, to prayers, simple or taking the form of magic incantations - this entire range of production is to be referred, not to each such single cause, but to the nature of the thing produced [i.e., to a certain natural tendency in the product to exist with its own quality].

All that forwards life or some other useful purpose is to be ascribed to the transmission characteristic of the All; it is something flowing from the major of an integral to its minor. Where we think we see the transmission of some force unfavourable to the production of living beings, the flaw must be found in the inability of the subject to take in what would serve it: for what happens does not happen upon a void; there is always specific form and quality; anything that could be affected must have an underlying nature definite and characterized. The inevitable blendings, further, have their constructive effect, every element adding something contributory to the life. Then again some influence may come into play at the time when the forces of a beneficent nature are not acting: the co-ordination of the entire system of things does not always allow to each several entity everything that it needs: and further we ourselves add a great deal to what is transmitted to us.

None the less all entwines into a unity: and there is something wonderful in the agreement holding among these various things of varied source, even of sources frankly opposite; the secret lies in a variety within a unity. When by the standard of the better kind among things of process anything falls short - the reluctance of its material substratum having prevented its perfect shaping under idea   - it may be thought of as being deficient in that noble element whose absence brings to shame: the thing is a blend, something due to the high beings, an alloy from the underlying nature, something added by the self.

Because all is ever being knit, all brought to culmination in unity, therefore all events are indicated; but this does not make virtue a matter of compulsion; its spontaneity is equally inwoven into the ordered system by the general law that the things of this sphere are pendant from the higher, that the content of our universe lies in the hands of the diviner beings in whom our world is participant.