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Plotino - Tratado 28,34 (IV, 4, 34) — A influência do cosmo sobre o homem é moderada

Enéada IV, 4, 34

quarta-feira 11 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Capítulos 30-45: A influência dos astros é devida à simpatia.

  • Cap 34, 1-7: A influência do cosmo sobre o homem   é moderada
  • Cap 34, 7-33: Os fatores determinando são de duas espécies
    

Míguez

34. Una parte de nosotros mismos, justamente la que pertenece al cuerpo del universo  , queda ligada por completo a él. Más, como no pensamos que pertenecemos enteramente al universo, la dependencia de éste resulta de hecho tolerable. Así, pues, somos como sabios a sueldo que dependen de sus dueños en cierta medida, pero cumpliendo mandatos realmente moderados; porque, en todo caso, no podríamos ser llamados esclavos ni hombres que dependen totalmente de otro.

En cuanto a los cambios de figura que se producen en el cielo   tendremos que atribuirlos necesariamente a la desigual velocidad de los planetas. Si este curso es lógico, se producirán también diferentes figuras en el animal   total, y, por otra parte, si las cosas que ocurren en este mundo simpatizan de algún modo con las cosas del cielo, será razonable preguntarse si están de acuerdo con ellas, o si por sí mismas disfrutan de cierto poder, en cuyo caso este mismo poder les correspondería como tales figuras o como figuras de los astros. Porque una misma figura, situada en seres diferentes, no anuncia ni produce las mismas cosas, sino que cada una responde a una naturaleza distinta. Si decimos, pues, rectamente, que la figura de unos objetos no es otra cosa que estos objetos y la misma disposición que hay en ellos, la figura de otros objetos, aun siendo la misma, tendrá que aparecer   como diferente. Y si es así, no concederemos la primacía a las figuras sino a los seres que las producen. O tal vez a unas y a otros. Porque vemos que en los mismos astros a figuras diferentes corresponden resultados diferentes, cosa que se da en uno mismo sólo con que cambie de lugar.

Pero, ¿qué es lo que hemos de atribuirles? ¿Acciones acaso, o simplemente señales? ¿Será que por unas y otras causas, o por todas ellas, pueden realmente producir y anunciar, o que únicamente les corresponde esto último? Esta es la razón de que atribuyamos un poder a las figuras y otro a las cosas figuradas, puesto que, también en los danzantes las manos y los otros miembros tienen cierto poder, y lo tienen en alto grado las figuras que ellos forman; en tercer lugar, están igualmente las cosas que se siguen de aquí, como las partes de los miembros que participan en la danza y las partes de estas partes, como ocurre con la mano, donde se da por simpatía una contracción de los músculos y de las venas.

Bouillet

XXXIV. Si nous accordons que nous subissons l’influence de l’univers par un des éléments de notre être, c’est par celui qui fait partie du corps de l’univers [par notre corps], et non par tous ceux qui nous composent ; par conséquent, l’univers qui nous entoure ne doit exercer sur nous qu’une influence limitée. Nous ressemblons sous ce rapport à des serviteurs sages qui savent à la fois exécuter les ordres de leurs maîtres et garder leur liberté, en sorte qu’ils sont traités d’une manière moins despotique parce qu’ils ne sont pas esclaves, qu’ils ne cessent pas complètement de s’appartenir à eux-mêmes.

Quant à la différence qui se trouve dans les figures formées par les astres, elle ne pouvait pas ne pas être ce qu’elle est, parce que les astres ne s’avancent pas avec une vitesse égale dans leur cours. Comme ils se meuvent selon les lois de la raison, que leurs positions relatives constituent les diverses attitudes de ce grand animal [qui est le monde], et que les choses qui arrivent ici-bas sont liées par les lois de la sympathie à celles qui arrivent là-haut, il convient de chercher si les choses terrestres sont les conséquences des choses célestes   auxquelles elles sont conformes, ou bien si les figures possèdent une puissance efficace, et, dans ce dernier cas, si toutes les figures possèdent cette puissance, ou s’il n’y a que les figures formées par les astres : car la même figure n’a pas la même signification et n’exerce pas la même action dans des choses différentes, parce que chaque être semble avoir sa nature propre. On peut dire que la configuration de certaines choses n’est autre que ces choses disposées de telle manière, que la configuration d’autres choses est la même disposition avec une autre figure. Mais, s’il en est ainsi, ce n’est plus aux figures, c’est aux choses figurées, ou plutôt aux choses identiques par leur essence et différentes par leurs figures, que nous accorderons de l’influence ; nous reconnaîtrons aussi une influence différente à l’objet qui ne diffère des autres que par la place qu’il occupe.

Mais en quoi consiste cette influence? Consiste-t-elle dans une signification ou dans une action? — Dans beaucoup de cas, nous accorderons au composé, c’est-à-dire à la chose figurée, une action et une signification ; dans d’autres cas, nous n’admettrons qu’une simple signification. En second lieu, nous attribuerons aussi aux figures et aux choses figurées des puissances qui leur sont propres : car si, dans les danseurs, la main a quelque puissance ainsi que les autres membres, les figures ont une puissance bien plus grande. Enfin, le troisième rang pour la puissance appartient aux choses qui suivent les figures en les exécutant, comme les suivent les membres des danseurs et les parties qui composent ces membres : c’est ainsi que les nerfs et les veines de la main sont contractés par les mouvements de cet organe et y participent.

Guthrie

THE INFLUENCE OF THE UNIVERSE SHOULD BE PARTIAL ONLY.

34. Granting that men are influenced by the universe through one of the elements of their being, it must be by (their body), that which forms part of the body of the universe, not by all those of which they are constituted. Consequently, the surrounding universe should exercise on them only a limited influence. In this respect they resemble wise servants who know how to carry out the orders of their masters without interfering with their own liberty, so that they are treated in a manner less despotic, because they are not slaves, and do not entirely cease to belong to themselves.

ASTROLOGICAL INFLUENCE MERELY INDICATION.

As to the difference found in the figures formed by the stars, it could not be other than it is, because the stars do not advance in their course with equal swiftness. As they move according to the laws of reason, and as their relative positions constitute the different attitudes of this great organism (which is the world), and as all the things that occur here below are, by the laws of sympathy related to those that occur on high, it would be proper to inquire whether terrestrial things are the consequences of the celestial things to which they are similar, or whether the figures possess an efficacious power; and in the latter case, whether all figures possess this power, or if figures are formed by stars only; for the same figure does not bear the same significance, and does not exert the same action in different things, because each being seems to have its own proper nature. It may be said that the configuration of certain things amounts to no more than the mere disposition of things; and that the configuration of other things is the same disposition with another figure. If so, influence should be attributed not to the figures, but to the prefigured realities; or rather, to things identical by their essence, and different by their figures; a different influence will also have to be attributed to the object which differs from the others only by the place it occupies.

ASTROLOGICAL INFLUENCE MAY BE PARTLY ACTION; PARTLY MERE SIGNIFICANCE.

But of what does this influence consist? In significance, or in (genuine effective) action? In many cases, the combination, or thing figured, may be said to have both an action, and a significance; in other cases, however, a significance merely. In second place, both the figures and the things figured should be credited with the powers suitable to each; as with dancers, the hand exerts an influence similar to that of the other members; and, returning to figures, these would exert an influence far greater than a hand in dancing. Last, the third (or lowest) degree of power pertains to those things which follow the lead of the figures, carrying out (their significance); just as, returning to the dance-illustrations, the dancer’s limbs, and the parts of those limbs, ultimately do follow the dance-figures; or (taking a more physiological example), as when the nerves and veins of the hand are contracted by the hand’s motions, and participate therein.

MacKenna

34. For ourselves, while whatever in us belongs to the body of the All should be yielded to its action, we ought to make sure that we submit only within limits, realizing that the entire man is not thus bound to it: intelligent servitors yield a part of themselves to their masters but in part retain their personality, and are thus less absolutely at beck and call, as not being slaves, not utterly chattels.

The changing configurations within the All could not fail to be produced as they are, since the moving bodies are not of equal speed.

Now the movement is guided by a Reason-Principle; the relations of the living whole are altered in consequence; here in our own realm all that happens reacts in sympathy to the events of that higher sphere: it becomes, therefore, advisable to ask whether we are to think of this realm as following upon the higher by agreement, or to attribute to the configurations the powers underlying the events, and whether such powers would be vested in the configurations simply or in the relations of the particular items.

It will be said that one position of one given thing has by no means an identical effect - whether of indication or of causation - in its relation to another and still less to any group of others, since each several being seems to have a natural tendency [or receptivity] of its own.

The truth is that the configuration of any given group means merely the relationship of the several parts, and, changing the members, the relationship remains the same.

But, this being so, the power will belong, not to the positions but to the beings holding those positions?

To both taken together. For as things change their relations, and as any one thing changes place, there is a change of power.

But what power? That of causation or of indication?

To this double thing - the particular configuration of particular beings - there accrues often the twofold power, that of causation and that of indication, but sometimes only that of indication. Thus we are obliged to attribute powers both to the configuration and to the beings entering into them. In mime dancers each of the hands has its own power, and so with all the limbs; the relative positions have much power; and, for a third power, there is that of the accessories and concomitants; underlying the action of the performers’ limbs, there are such items as the clutched fingers and the muscles and veins following suit.