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Plotino - Tratado 28,27 (IV, 4, 27) — A terra tem um poder vegetativo, um poder sensitivo e um intelecto

Enéada IV, 4, 27

segunda-feira 9 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Capítulos 18-29: O prazer e a dor  , o desejo e a cólera   em sua relação à união   da alma   e do corpo.

  • Cap 18: A união da alma e do corpo comparada ao ar aquecido (alma vegetativa) ou iluminado (alma descida)
  • Cap 19: O prazer e a dor  
  • Cap 20-21: O desejo
  • Cap 22-27: Digressão. A questão da alma vegetativa posta em relação a este vivente divino que é a terra  
  • Cap 22: Questão: É que a terra pode ter sensações?
  • Cap 23-26: Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer sem órgãos e tem por meta a utilidade  
  • Cap 27: Resposta  . A terra tem um poder vegetativo   que ela dá não somente às plantas, mas também às pedras. Ela tem um poder sensitivo. E ela tem um intelecto   como os astros.
  • Cap 28: A cólera
  • Cap 29: A separação   da alma e do corpo. A alma descida deixa imediatamente o corpo como a luz   quando sua fonte desaparece, então a alma vegetativa continua a agir durante um certo tempo como o color   no ar
    

Míguez

27. Si, pues, la tierra da a las plantas la potencia de engendrar o de crecer, no hay duda que esta potencia se encuentra en ella y que la de las plantas es una huella de aquélla. Pero, aun así, las plantas no dejarán de parecerse a la carne   animada, si poseen en sí mismas la potencia de engendrar. Esta potencia de la tierra da a las plantas lo que ellas tienen de mejor, con lo que las diferencia de un árbol cortado, que no es en realidad una planta  , sino tan sólo un trozo de madera.

Pero, ¿qué es lo que da el alma   de la tierra a su propio cuerpo? Hemos de admitir que un cuerpo terreno, una vez arrancado del suelo, no es ya el mismo que era antes. Vemos cómo las piedras aumentan de tamaño cuando están unidas a la tierra y cómo dejan de crecer cuando se las corta y separa de ella. Cada parte de la tierra conserva una huella de la potencia vegetativa, pero se trata, hemos de pensarlo así, de la potencia vegetativa general, esto es, no de la potencia de tal o cual planta, sino de la potencia de toda la tierra. En cuanto a la facultad de sentir que posea, no se presenta unida al cuerpo, sino más bien como conducida por él. Lo que ocurre también con el resto de su alma y de su mente  , a la que los hombres denominan con los nombres de Hestia   y de Deméter, sirviéndose de un oráculo de naturaleza divina.

Bouillet

XXVII. Si la Terre communique aux végétaux la puissance d’engendrer et de croître, elle possède en elle-même cette puissance et elle en donne seulement un vestige aux végétaux qui lui doivent toute leur fécondité et sont en quelque sorte la chair vivante de son corps. Elle leur donne ce qu’il y a de meilleur en eux, ce qui fait la différence d’une plante inhérente à la terre et d’une branche qu’on en a coupée : la première est une plante véritable; la seconde n’est qu’un morceau de bois. — Que communique donc au corps de la Terre l’âme qui y préside ? — Pour le voir, il suffit de remarquer la différence qu’il y a entre un morceau de terre inhérent au sol et un morceau qu’on en a détaché. Il est également facile de reconnaître que les pierres grossissent tant qu’elles sont dans le sein de la terre, tandis qu’elles restent toujours dans le même état quand elles en ont été arrachées. Chaque chose a donc en elle un vestige de la Puissance végétative universelle (τὸ πᾶν   φυτικόν) en propre à aucune de ses parties. Quant à la Puissance sensitive de la Terre, elle n’est pas mêlée à son corps [comme la puissance végétative]; elle l’assiste seulement. Enfin, la Terre a aussi une Âme supérieure aux puissances précédentes  , et une Intelligence, Âme et Intelligence auxquelles les hommes qui sont conduits par leur nature et par l’inspiration divine à nous révéler ces choses donnent les noms de Cérès et de Vesta (73).

Guthrie

ANALYSIS   OF THE EARTH’S PSYCHOLOGY.

27. If the earth communicate to plant-life the power of begetting and growing, it possesses this power within itself, and gives only a trace of it to the plants which derive from it all their fruitfulness, and as it were are the living flesh of its body. It gives to them what is best in them; this can be seen in the difference between a plant growing in the soil, and of a branch cut from it; the former is a real plant, the latter is only a piece of wood. What is communicated to the body of the earth by the Soul which presides over it? To see this it is sufficient to notice the difference between some earth resting within the soil, and a piece that is detached therefrom. It is likewise easy to recognize that stones increase in size as long as they are in the bosom of the earth, while they remain in the same state when they have been plucked out therefrom. Everything therefore bears within itself a trace of the universal   vegetative (power) shed abroad over the whole earth, and belonging particularly to no one of its parts. As to the earth’s power of sensation  , it is not (like its vegetative power) mingled with the body of the earth; it only hovers above and guides it. Moreover, the earth possesses also, higher than the above powers, a soul and an intelligence. They bear respectively the names of Ceres and Vesta, according to the revelations of men of prophetic nature, who allow themselves to be inspired by the divine.

MacKenna

27. If the earth transmits the generative soul to growing things - or retains it while allowing a vestige of it to constitute the vegetal principle in them - at once the earth is ensouled, as our flesh is, and any generative power possessed by the plant world is of its bestowing: this phase of the soul is immanent in the body of the growing thing, and transmits to it that better element by which it differs from the broken off part no longer a thing of growth but a mere lump of material.

But does the entire body of the earth similarly receive anything from the soul?

Yes: for we must recognize that earthly material broken off from the main body differs from the same remaining continuously attached; thus stones increase as long as they are embedded, and, from the moment they are separated, stop at the size attained.

We must conclude, then, that every part and member of the earth carries its vestige of this principle of growth, an under-phase of that entire principle which belongs not to this or that member but to the earth as a whole: next in order is the nature [the soul-phase], concerned with sensation, this not interfused [like the vegetal principle] but in contact from above: then the higher soul and the Intellectual-Principle, constituting together the being known as Hestia [Earth-Mind  ] and Demeter   [Earth-Soul] - a nomenclature indicating the human intuition   of these truths, asserted in the attribution of a divine name and nature.