Página inicial > Antiguidade > Neoplatonismo (245-529 dC) > Plotino (204-270 dC) – Tratados Enéadas > Plotino - Tratado 28,26 (IV, 4, 26) — Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer (...)

ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 28,26 (IV, 4, 26) — Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer sem órgãos (4)

Enéada IV, 4, 26

segunda-feira 9 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 18-29: O prazer e a dor, o desejo e a cólera em sua relação à união da alma e do corpo.

  • Cap 18: A união da alma e do corpo comparada ao ar aquecido (alma vegetativa) ou iluminado (alma descida)
  • Cap 19: O prazer e a dor
  • Cap 20-21: O desejo
  • Cap 22-27: Digressão. A questão da alma vegetativa posta em relação a este vivente divino que é a terra
  • Cap 22: Questão: É que a terra pode ter sensações?
  • Cap 23-26: Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer sem órgãos e tem por meta a utilidade
  • Cap 27: Resposta. A terra tem um poder vegetativo que ela dá não somente às plantas, mas também às pedras. Ela tem um poder sensitivo. E ela tem um intelecto como os astros.
  • Cap 28: A cólera
  • Cap 29: A separação da alma e do corpo. A alma descida deixa imediatamente o corpo como a luz quando sua fonte desaparece, então a alma vegetativa continua a agir durante um certo tempo como o color no ar

Míguez

26. En cuanto a los astros, son conocedores de nuestros deseos por su especial disposición y manera de conducirse. Ese es el motivo de que actúen sobre nosotros. En las artes de los magos, por ejemplo, todo mira a la conjunción de los astros y a las consecuencias que de esto se siguen para los seres que con ellos simpatizan.

Si esto es así, ¿por qué no hemos de conceder la sensación a la tierra? Y mejor, ¿qué sensaciones? ¿Por qué no hemos de otorgarle, en primer lugar el tacto, para que una de sus partes sienta por otra y se transmita al todo la sensación del fuego y de otras cosas semejantes? Porque si la tierra cuenta con un cuerpo difícil de mover, ello no quiere decir que este cuerpo sea inmóvil. Tendrá, pues, la sensación, si no de las cosas pequeñas, sí al menos de las cosas grandes. Pero, ¿por qué se dará en ella la sensación? Porque sin duda es necesario, en el caso de que tenga un alma, que sus movimientos más importantes no se le oculten. Nada impide, por lo demás, que posea sensaciones, al objeto de disponer lo mejor posible las cosas de los hombres en la medida en que estas cosas dependen de ella. Aunque bien pudiera ocurrir que su buena disposición sea consecuencia de la simpatía universal. Y si da oídos a nuestras súplicas y las aprueba, no lo hará, desde luego, a la manera como lo hacemos nosotros. Puede experimentar, en efecto, otras sensaciones, ya se vea afectada por ella misma o por otras cosas; así, por ejemplo, puede percibir los olores y los gustos para proveer a las necesidades de los animales y a la conservación de sus cuerpos. Pero esto no quiere decir que haya de exigir órganos como los nuestros, pues a todos los animales no corresponden los mismos órganos y algunos, que no tienen orejas, perciben sin embargo los ruidos. Más, ¿cómo atribuirle la visión, si para esto es necesaria la luz? Porque es claro que no vamos a concederle el disfrutar de ojos. A la tierra le atribuimos con razón la potencia vegetativa, por estimar que esta potencia se da en un espíritu y que es, además, en ella algo realmente primitivo. Pero si esto es así, ¿por qué dudar de su transparencia? Siendo un espíritu, es en mayor grado transparente, y si, por otra parte, está iluminado por la esfera celeste, será transparente en acto. De modo que no resulta extraño ni imposible que el alma de la tierra posea la sensación de la vista. Hemos de pensar que no es el alma de un cuerpo baladí, puesto que la tierra misma es algo divino; por lo cual, entera y absolutamente dispondrá siempre de un alma buena.

Bouillet

XXVI. Les astres connaissent nos vœux par l’accord et la sympathie qu’établit entre eux et nous l’harmonie qui règne dans l’univers (68); c’est de la même manière que nos vœux sont exaucés. La magie est également fondée sur l’harmonie de l’univers; elle agit au moyen des forces qui sont liées les unes aux autres par la sympathie (69). S’il en est ainsi, pourquoi n’accorderions-nous pas à la Terre la faculté de sentir? — Mais quelles sensations lui reconnaîtrons-nous! — D’abord, pourquoi ne lui attribuerions-nous pas le tact, soit qu’une partie sente l’état d’une autre partie et que la sensation soit transmise à la puissance dirigeante, soit que la Terre tout entière sente le feu et les autres choses semblables : car, si l’élément terrestre est inerte, il n’est cependant pas insensible (70). La Terre sentira donc les grandes choses et non celles de peu d’importance. — Mais pourquoi sentira-t-elle? — C’est qu’il est nécessaire que la Terre, ayant une âme, n’ignore pas les mouvements les plus forts. Rien n’empêche que la Terre ne sente aussi pour bien disposer par rapport aux hommes tout ce qui dépend d’elle. Or, elle disposera toutes ces choses convenablement par les lois   de la sympathie. Elle peut entendre et exaucer les prières qui lui sont adressées, mais d’une autre manière que nous ne le faisons nous-mêmes. Elle peut encore exercer d’autres sens dans ses relations, soit avec elle-même, soit avec les choses étrangères, par exemple, avoir la sensation des odeurs et celle des saveurs perçues par les autres êtres. Peut-être a-t-elle besoin de percevoir les odeurs des liquides pour remplir ses fonctions providentielles à l’égard des animaux et pour prendre soin de son propre corps.

Il ne faut cependant pas réclamer pour elle des organes semblables aux nôtres. Les organes, en effet, ne sont pas semblables dans tous les animaux. Ainsi, tous n’ont pas des oreilles pareilles, et ceux qui n’ont pas d’oreilles perçoivent cependant les sons. Comment la Terre verra-t-elle, si la lumière lui est nécessaire pour voir? car il ne faut pas réclamer pour elle des yeux. Ayant précédemment accordé qu’elle possède la puissance végétative (71), nous devons accorder comme conséquence que cette puissance est primitivement par son essence une espèce d’esprit (πνεῦμα) (72): or, pourquoi refuserions-nous d’admettre que cet esprit soit diaphane? Nous devons admettre qu’il est diaphane [en puissance], parce qu’il est esprit ; et qu’il est diaphane en acte, parce qu’il est illuminé par la sphère céleste. Il n’est donc ni impossible ni incroyable que l’âme de la Terre possède la vue. Il faut en outre se rappeler qu’elle n’est point l’âme d’un corps vil, qu’elle doit être par conséquent une déesse. En tout cas, cette âme doit être éternellement bonne.

Guthrie

THE EARTH FEELS AND DIRECTS BY THE LAWS   OF SYMPATHETIC HARMONY.

26. The stars know our desires through the agreement and sympathy established between them and us by the harmony reigning in the universe. Our desires are granted by the same method. Likewise, magic is founded on the harmony of the universe; it acts by means of the forces which are interconnected by sympathy. If so, why should we not attribute to the earth the faculty of sensation? Granting this, what sort of sensations would we attribute to it? To begin with, why should we not attribute to it touch, whether by one part feeling the condition of another, and by the transmission of the sensation to the governing power, or by the whole earth feeling the fire, and other similar things; for if the terrestrial element is inert, it certainly is not insensible. The earth will therefore feel the great things, and not those of minor importance. Why should it feel ? Surely if the earth have a soul, she will not ignore the strongest motions therein. The earth must also be supposed to feel, in order to dispose all that depends on her for the benefit of humanity. All these things she will suitably dispose by the laws   of harmony. She can hear and grant the prayers addressed to her, but in a manner other than we ourselves would do. Besides, she might exercise other senses in her relations, either with herself, or with foreign things; as, for example, to have the sensations of taste and smell perceived by other beings. Perhaps even she has need to perceive the odors of the liquids to fulfil her providential functions in respect to animals, and to take care of her own body.

THE EARTH’S SENSES MAY BE DIFFERENT FROM OURS.

We must however not insist on her organs being the same as ours. Not even in all animals are the senses similar. Thus, for instance, not all have similar ears, and even those who have no ears at all nevertheless will perceive sounds. How could the earth see, if light be necessary for her vision ? Nor must we claim for her the necessity of having eyes. We have already above granted that she possesses the vegetative power; we should therefore thence draw the deduction that this power is primitively by its essence a sort of spirit. What objection then could there be to assume that this spirit might be resplendent and transparent? Arguing merely from its nature of being a spirit, we should (potentially at least) conclude that it is transparent; and that it is actually transparent because it is illuminated by the celestial sphere. It is therefore neither impossible nor incredible that the soul of the earth should possess sight. Besides, we must remember that this soul is not that of a vile body, and that consequently, she must be a goddess. In any case, this soul must be eternally good.

MacKenna

26. Their knowledge of our prayers is due to what we may call an enlinking, a determined relation of things fitted into a system; so, too, the fulfillment of the petitions; in the art of magic all looks to this enlinkment: prayer and its answer, magic and its success, depend upon the sympathy of enchained forces.

This seems to oblige us to accord sense-perception to the earth.

But what perception?

Why not, to begin with, that of contact-feeling, the apprehension of part by part, the apprehension of fire by the rest of the entire mass in a sensation transmitted upwards to the earth’s leading principle? A corporeal mass [such as that of the earth] may be sluggish but is not utterly inert. Such perceptions, of course, would not be of trifles, but of the graver movement of things.

But why even of them?

Because those gravest movements could not possibly remain unknown where there is an immanent soul.

And there is nothing against the idea that sensation in the earth exists for the sake of the human interests furthered by the earth. They would be served by means of the sympathy that has been mentioned; petitioners would be heard and their prayers met, though in a way not ours. And the earth, both in its own interest and in that of beings distinct from itself, might have the experiences of the other senses also - for example, smell and taste where, perhaps, the scent of juices or sap might enter into its care for animal life, as in the constructing or restoring of their bodily part.

But we need not demand for earth the organs by which we, ourselves, act: not even all the animals have these; some, without ears perceive sound.

For sight it would not need eyes - though if light is indispensable how can it see?

That the earth contains the principle of growth must be admitted; it is difficult not to allow in consequence that, since this vegetal principle is a member of spirit, the earth is primarily of the spiritual order; and how can we doubt that in a spirit all is lucid? This becomes all the more evident when we reflect that, besides being as a spirit lightsome, it is physically illuminated moving in the light of kosmic revolution.

There is, thus, no longer any absurdity or impossibility in the notion that the soul in the earth has vision: we must, further, consider that it is the soul of no mean body; that in fact it is a god since certainly soul must be everywhere good.