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Plotino - Tratado 28,25 (IV, 4, 25) — Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer sem órgãos (3)

Enéada IV, 4, 25

segunda-feira 9 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 18-29: O prazer e a dor, o desejo e a cólera em sua relação à união da alma e do corpo.

  • Cap 18: A união da alma e do corpo comparada ao ar aquecido (alma vegetativa) ou iluminado (alma descida)
  • Cap 19: O prazer e a dor
  • Cap 20-21: O desejo
  • Cap 22-27: Digressão. A questão da alma vegetativa posta em relação a este vivente divino que é a terra
  • Cap 22: Questão: É que a terra pode ter sensações?
  • Cap 23-26: Sabe-se que a sensação não pode se fazer sem órgãos e tem por meta a utilidade
  • Cap 27: Resposta. A terra tem um poder vegetativo que ela dá não somente às plantas, mas também às pedras. Ela tem um poder sensitivo. E ela tem um intelecto como os astros.
  • Cap 28: A cólera
  • Cap 29: A separação da alma e do corpo. A alma descida deixa imediatamente o corpo como a luz quando sua fonte desaparece, então a alma vegetativa continua a agir durante um certo tempo como o color no ar

Míguez

25. Para ver, y para sentir en general, no basta contener órganos, sino que es preciso que el alma se incline hacia las cosas sensibles. Ahora bien, como el alma del universo se aplica siempre a los seres inteligibles, aun disfrutando del poder de sentir no podría hacer uso de él puesto que se encuentra en una región superior. Nosotros mismos, cuando contemplamos con suma atención a los seres inteligibles, damos al olvido las sensaciones visuales y cualesquiera otras; incluso, la percepción de una cosa nos hace prescindir de la visión de otra. Se quiere, en realidad, que el universo perciba una de sus partes por medio de otra, como si verdaderamente se viese a sí mismo. Pero esta reflexión sobre sí mismo, aun tratándose de nosotros, no tiene ninguna utilidad como no se haga en vista de algún fin. Mirar hacia algo por el simple hecho de que sea bello, es lo propio de un ser imperfecto y dispuesto a sufrir.

Podría aducirse que el olfato y el gusto están ligados a ciertas cualidades y que, en tal sentido, tiran del alma hacia todas partes, en tanto la vista y el oído pueden pertenecer por accidente al sol y a los demás astros. Opinión no carente de lógica, si vuelven su atención hacia nosotros. Pero, si esto ocurre, es que disfrutan de memoria, pues sería extraño que no recordasen sus buenas acciones. ¿Cómo existirían éstas si no hay memoria de ellas?

Bouillet

XXV. Il semble que, pour voir et en général pour sentir, il ne suffit pas que l’âme possède les organes nécessaires; il faut encore qu’elle soit disposée à accorder son attention aux choses sensibles. Mais il convient à l’Âme universelle d’être toujours appliquée à la contemplation des intelligibles, et, de ce qu’elle possède la faculté de sentir, il ne s’ensuit pas qu’elle l’exerce, parce qu’elle est tout entière à des objets d’une nature plus relevée. C’est ainsi que nous-mêmes, quand nous nous appliquons à la contemplation des intelligibles, nous ne remarquons ni les sensations de la vue, ni celles des autres sens; et, en général, l’attention que nous accordons à une chose nous empêche de voir les autres. Vouloir percevoir une de ses parties par une autre, par exemple, se regarder soi-même, est, même en nous, une action superflue et vaine, si elle n’a un but. Contempler une chose extérieure parce qu’elle est belle, c’est encore le propre d’un être imparfait et sujet à pâtir. On a donc le droit de dire que, si sentir, entendre, goûter les saveurs, sont des distractions de l’âme qui s’attache aux objets extérieurs, le soleil elles autres astres ne peuvent voir et entendre que par accident. Il n’est point cependant déraisonnable d’admettre qu’ils se tournent vers nous par l’exercice des sens de la vue et de l’ouïe. Or, s’ils se tournent vers nous, ils doivent se souvenir des choses humaines. Il serait absurde qu’ils ne se souvinssent pas des hommes auxquels ils font du bien : comment en effet feraient-ils du bien, s’ils n’avaient aucun souvenir (67)?

Guthrie

IF SENSATION IS A SOUL-DISTRACTION, THE STARS WOULD NOT INDULGE THEREIN.

25. It would seem that in order to see, and in general to feel, mere possession of the necessary organs by the soul, is not enough; the soul must also be disposed to direct her attention to things of sense. But it is usual for the (universal) Soul to be ever applied to the contemplation of intelligible things; and mere possession of the faculty of sensation would not necessarily imply its exercise, because it would be entirely devoted to objects of a higher nature. So when we apply ourselves to the contemplation of intelligible things, we notice neither the sensation of sight, nor those of other senses; and, in general, the attention that we give to one thing hinders us from seeing the others. Even among us human beings, to wish to perceive one of our members through another, as, for instance, looking at ourselves, is both superfluous and vain, unless this has some very good purpose. Moreover, it is a characteristic of an imperfect and fallible being to contemplate some external thing, merely because it is beautiful. It may therefore well be said that if to feel, hear and taste are distractions of a soul that attaches herself to outer objects, the sun and the other stars cannot see or hear, except accidentally. It would however not be unreasonable to admit that they turn towards us through the exercise of the senses of sight or hearing. Now, if they turn towards us, they must be mindful of human affairs. It would be absurd that they should not remember the men to whom they do so much good; how indeed would they do good, if they had no memory?

MacKenna

25. But the organ is not the only requisite to vision or to perception of any kind: there must be a state of the soul inclining it towards the sphere of sense.

Now it is the soul’s character to be ever in the Intellectual sphere, and even though it were apt to sense-perception, this could not accompany that intention towards the highest; to ourselves when absorbed in the Intellectual, vision and the other acts of sense are in abeyance for the time; and, in general, any special attention blurs every other. The desire of apprehension from part to part - a subject examining itself - is merely curiosity even in beings of our own standing, and, unless for some definite purpose, is waste of energy: and the desire to apprehend something external - for the sake of a pleasant sight - is the sign of suffering or deficiency.

Smelling, tasting flavours [and such animal perceptions] may perhaps be described as mere accessories, distractions of the soul, while seeing and hearing would belong to the sun and the other heavenly bodies as incidentals to their being. This would not be unreasonable if seeing and hearing are means by which they apply themselves to their function.

But if they so apply themselves, they must have memory; it is impossible that they should have no remembrance if they are to be benefactors, their service could not exist without memory.