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Plotino - Tratado 28,13 (IV, 4, 13) — Zeus enquanto alma do mundo (4)

Enéada IV, 4, 13

quinta-feira 21 de abril de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Cap 10 a 14: Zeus enquanto alma do mundo

  • Cap 10: A atividade ordenadora da alma do mundo é imutável
  • Cap 11 e 12: Sua obra eleva-se da natureza e não da técnica, ela é um saber e não uma lembrança
  • Cap 13 e 14: A questão da natureza, reflexo da alma do mundo, e de sua ação sobre os corpos

Míguez

13. Pero, ¿en qué se diferencia la sabiduría así descrita de lo que llamamos la naturaleza? La sabiduría es, ciertamente, lo primero, y la naturaleza lo último. La naturaleza es una imagen de la sabiduría y, como última parte del alma, no contiene más que los últimos reflejos que se dan en la razón. Ocurre aquí como en una espesa capa de cera: si se marca una impronta en una de sus caras y ésta llega hasta la otra cara, los rasgos de la impronta, que aparecerán bien marcados en la cara superior, aparecerán en cambio debilitados en la cara inferior. Y es que la naturaleza no conoce, sino que tan sólo produce. Da involuntariamente lo que ella tiene a lo que está por debajo de ella, tanto a la naturaleza corpórea como a la material, lo mismo que un objeto caliente transmite la forma del calor a un objeto que está en contacto con él, aunque su acción sea menor que la de la fuente del calor. Por eso, la naturaleza carece de imaginación y el pensamiento se muestra también superior a la imaginación. De ésta diremos que es intermedia entre la impronta de la naturaleza y el pensamiento. La naturaleza no tiene ni percepción ni inteligencia; la imaginación, por su parte, recibe las impresiones de fuera y da a lo que ella imagina el conocimiento que experimente. El pensamiento engendra por si mismo, y actúa porque proviene de un ser en acto. La inteligencia posee los seres, el alma del universo los acoge eternamente y en esto consiste su vida, que se hace manifieste como un conocimiento intelectual incesante. La naturaleza, a su vez, viene a ser el reflejo del alma sobre la materia. En ella, e incluso antes de ella, encuentran su fin los seres reales, en el borde inferior de la realidad inteligible. Desde aquí ya no contamos más que con imágenes. Pero la naturaleza actúa sobre la materia y sufre con relación al alma. El alma, en cambio, que es anterior a ella y también vecina de ella, actúa y no sufre, en tanto el alma de lo alto no actúa ya ni sobre los cuerpos ni sobre la materia.

Bouillet

XIII. Comment la Sagesse propre à l’Âme universelle diffère-t-elle de la Nature? C’est que la Sagesse occupe dans l’Ame le premier rang et la Nature le dernier, puisqu’elle n’est que l’image de la Sagesse ; or, si la Nature n’occupe que le dernier rang, elle doit aussi n’avoir que le dernier degré de la Raison qui éclaire l’Âme (29). Qu’on se représente un morceau de cire où la figure imprimée sur une face pénètre jusqu’à l’autre, et dont les traits bien marqués sur la face supérieure n’apparaissent que d’une manière confuse sur la face inférieure : telle est la condition de la Nature ; elle ne connaît pas, elle produit seulement, elle transmet aveuglément à la matière la forme qu’elle possède, comme un objet chaud transmet à un autre, mais à un moindre degré, la chaleur qu’il a lui-même. La Nature n’imagine même pas : car l’acte d’imaginer, inférieur à celui de penser, est cependant supérieur à celui d’imprimer une forme, comme le fait la Nature (φύσεως τύπος) (30). La Nature ne peut rien saisir ni rien comprendre (31), tandis que l’Imagination saisit l’objet adventice, et permet à celui qui imagine de connaître ce qu’il a éprouvé. Quant à la Nature, elle ne sait qu’engendrer (32) ; elle est l’acte de la puissance active de l’Âme universelle. Ainsi, l’Intelligence possède les formes intelligibles ; l’Âme universelle les a reçues et les reçoit d’elle sans cesse ; c’est là ce qui constitue sa vie ; la clarté qui brille en elle est la conscience qu’elle a de sa pensée. Le reflet que l’Âme projette elle-même sur la matière est la Nature, qui termine la série des êtres et occupe le dernier degré du monde intelligible ; après elle, il n’y a plus que les imitations des essences. La Nature, tout en agissant sur la matière, est passive à l’égard de l’Âme. L’Âme, supérieure à la Nature, agit sans pâtir. Enfin, l’Intelligence suprême n’agit point sur les corps ni sur la matière.

Guthrie

IN THE WORLD-SOUL WISDOM IS THE HIGHEST AND NATURE THE LOWEST.

13. How would such a wisdom differ from so-called nature? (In the Soul) wisdom occupies the first rank, and nature the last. Nature is only the image of wisdom; now, if nature occupy no more than the last rank, she must also have only the last degree of the reason that enlightens the Soul. As illustration, take a piece of wax, on which the figure impressed on one side penetrates to the other; and whose well-marked traits on the upper face appear on the lower face only in a confused manner. Such is the condition of nature. She does not know, she only produces, blindly she transmits to matter the form she possesses, just as some warm object transmits to another, buf in a lesser degree, the heat it itself possesses. Nature does not even imagine: for the act of imagining, inferior as it is to that of thinking, is nevertheless superior to that of impressing a form, as nature does it. Nature can neither grasp nor understand anything; while imagination seizes the adventitious object and permits the one who is imaging to know what he has experienced. As to nature, all it knows is to beget; it is the actualization of the active potentiality (of the universal Soul). Consequently, Intelligence possesses intelligible forms; the (universal) Soul has received them, and ceaselessly receives them from her; that is what her life consists of; the clearness which shines in her is the consciousness she has of her thought. The reflection which (the Soul herself projects on matter is nature, which terminates the series of essences, and occupies the last rank in the intelligible world; after her, there is nothing but imitations (of beings). Nature, while acting on matter is passive in respect (to the Soul). The (Soul), superior to nature, acts without suffering. Finally, the supreme (Intelligence) does not (itself) act on the bodies or on matter.

MacKenna

13. But what is the difference between the Wisdom thus conducting the universe and the principle known as Nature?

This Wisdom is a first [within the All-Soul] while Nature is a last: for Nature is an image of that Wisdom, and, as a last in the soul, possesses only the last of the Reason-Principle: we may imagine a thick waxen seal, in which the imprint has penetrated to the very uttermost film so as to show on both sides, sharp cut on the upper surface, faint on the under. Nature, thus, does not know, it merely produces: what it holds it passes, automatically, to its next; and this transmission to the corporeal and material constitutes its making power: it acts as a thing warmed, communicating to what lies in next contact to it the principle of which it is the vehicle so as to make that also warm in some less degree.

Nature, being thus a mere communicator, does not possess even the imaging act. There is [within the Soul] intellection, superior to imagination; and there is imagination standing midway between that intellection and the impression of which alone Nature is capable. For Nature has no perception or consciousness of anything; imagination [the imaging faculty] has consciousness of the external, for it enables that which entertains the image to have knowledge of the experience encountered, while Nature’s function is to engender - of itself though in an act derived from the active principle [of the soul].

Thus the Intellectual-Principle possesses: the Soul of the All eternally receives from it; this is the soul’s life; its consciousness is its intellection of what is thus eternally present to it; what proceeds from it into Matter and is manifested there is Nature, with which - or even a little before it - the series of real being comes to an end, for all in this order are the ultimates of the intellectual order and the beginnings of the imitative.

There is also the decided difference that Nature operates toward soul, and receives from it: soul, near to Nature but superior, operates towards Nature but without receiving in turn; and there is the still higher phase [the purely Intellectual] with no action whatever upon body or upon Matter.