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Plotino - Tratado 28,6 (IV, 4, 6) — A memória não pertence senão às almas que mudam de lugar e se transformam

Enéada IV, 4, 6

sábado 26 de fevereiro de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 6-17: Nos astros, no demiurgo e na alma do mundo, não há memória

  • Cap 6: Introdução: não há memória neles, pois eles nada buscam, enquanto a memória não pertencem senão às almas que mudam de lugar e se transformam

Míguez

6. Podría decirse entonces que sólo cuentan con recuerdos las almas que sufren cambios o modificaciones. Porque es claro que la memoria versa únicamente sobre hechos pasados, pues, ¿de qué habrían de recordarse, las almas que permanecen en un mismo estado? Esta es la cuestión a dilucidar en lo que respecte al alma de los astros y de los demás cuerpos del cielo; y no menos en cuanto al alma del sol o de la luna, o, en fin, en cuanto al alma del universo. Habrá que intentar entrometerse en los recuerdos del mismo Zeus y no estará de más averiguar, al hacer esto, cuáles son los pensamientos y los razonamientos de aquellas almas, caso de que ellas existan.

Mas, si dichas almas no tienen nada que buscar ni les asalte duda de ninguna clase — pues de nada tienen necesidad, ni han de aprender cosa alguna, ya que ello supondría su anterior ignorancia — , ¿qué razonamientos, o qué silogismos, o incluso qué pensamientos podremos atribuirles? Ni sobre las cosas humanas, ni sobre las cosas de la tierra, tienen que ejercitar estas almas sus pensamientos y sus artes; porque, evidentemente, disponen de otros medios para introducir el orden en el universo.

Bouillet

VI. On peut donc affirmer sans crainte que les âmes qui exercent leur raison discursive et qui changent d’état se souviennent : car la mémoire s’applique aux choses qui ont été et qui ne sont plus (13). Mais les âmes qui demeurent dans le même état ne sauraient se souvenir : car de quoi se souviendraient-elles (14)?

Si [méconnaissant les vérités que nous venons d’exposer], la raison humaine veut attribuer la mémoire aux âmes de tous les astres, surtout à celle de la Lune et à celle du Soleil, elle finira par agir de même à l’égard de l’Âme universelle et elle osera attribuer à Jupiter même des souvenirs qui l’occuperaient de mille choses diverses. Une fois entrée dans cet ordre d’idées, la raison sera amenée à chercher quelles sont les conceptions, quels sont les raisonnements des âmes des astres, en admettant toutefois qu’elles raisonnent. [Mais c’est là une hypothèse toute gratuite :] car si ces âmes n’ont rien à découvrir, si elles ne doutent pas, si elles n’ont besoin de rien, si elles n’apprennent pas des choses qu’elles ignorassent auparavant, quel usage feraient-elles du raisonnement, des arguments ou des conceptions de la raison discursive ? Elles n’ont pas non plus à chercher des moyens mécaniques de gouverner les choses humaines et tout ce qui se passe sur la terre : car c’est d’une tout autre manière qu’elles font régner l’ordre dans l’univers.

Guthrie

MEMORY IS LIMITED TO SOULS THAT CHANGE THEIR CONDITION.

6. It may therefore be fearlessly affirmed that the souls which exercise their discursive reason, and which change condition, remember; for memory is the characteristic of things that were, but no more are.

DO THE WORLD-SOUL AND THE STAR-SOULS EXERCISE MEMORY?

But evidently the souls which dwell in the same state could not exercise memory; for what would they have to remember? If (ignoring our arguments above) human reason should wish to attribute memory to the souls of all the stars, especially to that of the moon and the sun, there is nothing to hinder it from doing the same with regard to the universal Soul, and it would dare to attribute even to Jupiter memories which would occupy him with a thousand different things. As soon as it will have entered into this order of ideas, reason would proceed to speculate about the conceptions and ratiocinations of the star-souls — that is, granting that they reason at all. (But that is a gratuitous assumption); for if these souls have nothing to discover, if they do not doubt, if they have no need of anything, if they do not learn things that they have ignored before, what use would they make of reasoning, of arguments, or of the conceptions of discursive reason ? They have no need of seeking mechanical means of governing human affairs and events; for they enforce order in the universe in a totally different manner.

MacKenna

6. Souls that descend, souls that change their state - these, then, may be said to have memory, which deals with what has come and gone; but what subjects of remembrance can there be for souls whose lot is to remain unchanged?

The question touches memory in the stars in general, and also in the sun and moon and ends by dealing with the soul of the All, even by audaciously busying itself with the memories of Zeus himself. The enquiry entails the examination and identification of acts of understanding and of reasoning in these beings, if such acts take place.

Now if, immune from all lack, they neither seek nor doubt, and never learn, nothing being absent at any time from their knowledge - what reasonings, what processes of rational investigation, can take place in them, what acts of the understanding?

Even as regards human concerns they have no need for observation or method; their administration of our affairs and of earth’s in general does not go so; the right ordering, which is their gift to the universe, is effected by methods very different.

In other words, they have seen God and they do not remember?

Ah, no: it is that they see God still and always, and that, as long as they see, they cannot tell themselves they have had the vision; such reminiscence is for souls that have lost it.


Ver online : ENÉADAS III-IV (Gredos)