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Plotino - Tratado 27,24 (IV, 3, 24) — A saída da alma fora do corpo

Enéada IV, 3, 24

quinta-feira 21 de abril de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 20-24: A alma está no corpo como em um lugar?

  • Cap 20 a 21: A alma não está no corpo, como em um lugar, nem como um substrato, nem como uma parte em um todo, nem como a forma na matéria, nem mesmo como o piloto em seu navio
  • Cap 22: A alma está no corpo como a luz está no ar, e é o corpo que está na alma
  • Cap 23: Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente
  • Cap 24: A saída da alma fora do corpo

Míguez

24. Pero, ¿a dónde va el alma cuando abandona el cuerpo? No diremos que se encuentra aquí, porque nada hay que pueda recibirla, ni tampoco podría permanecer en lo que no está hecho para ella. A no ser que alguna cosa del cuerpo la atraiga a él por su misma insensatez. Porque es claro que si tomase otro cuerpo, ya se dará en él y le seguirá allí donde su naturaleza le hace existir y nacer. Siendo muchos los lugares que pueden acoger al alma, convendrá que aquel al que llegue esté de acuerdo con sus disposiciones y con la justicia que domina sobre los seres. Porque nadie escapa a los castigos debidos a la injusticia. La ley divina no puede en modo alguno ser eludida y dispone en sí misma de poder resolutivo; por ello, incluso sin saberlo, el culpable es llevado al lugar de castigo, y, movido con un movimiento incierto, oscilando de aquí para allá, termina al fin, luego de muchos extravíos y fatigas, por caer en el lugar adecuado. Voluntariamente, pues, se entrega a un sufrimiento involuntario. Pero en la ley se determina la cantidad y el tiempo del castigo y, cuando éste cesa, el culpable puede abandonar el lugar que le fue asignado gracias a la armonía que reina en todas las cosas.

Las almas que sufran un castigo corpóreo habrán de contar, sin embargo, con un cuerpo. En cuanto a las almas puras, que no sufren en modo alguno la atracción de ningún cuerpo, no pueden ser ya necesariamente las almas de un cierto cuerpo. Y si no están en ningún lugar del cuerpo — puesto que no tienen cuerpo — , se encontrarán allí donde se hallen la sustancia, el ser y la divinidad. En Dios, con la sustancia y el ser, tal será en verdad el lugar de esas almas. Si queréis encontrar donde se hallan, buscadlas, pero no con los ojos y al modo como buscáis los cuerpos.

Bouillet

XXIV. Où passera l’âme quand elle sera sortie du corps (134)? — Elle n’ira pas là où il n’y a rien qui puisse la recevoir. Elle ne saurait passer dans ce qui n’est pas naturellement disposé pour la recevoir, à moins qu’il n’y ait quelque chose qui attire une âme insensée. Dans ce cas, l’âme de- 312 meure dans ce qui est capable de la recevoir et le suit là où par sa nature il peut exister et être engendré. Or, comme il y a des lieux divers, il est nécessaire que la différence [des demeures dans lesquelles les âmes viennent habiter] provienne de la disposition de chaque âme et de la justice qui règne sur les êtres. Nul en effet ne saurait échapper à la punition que méritent d’injustes actions. La loi divine est inévitable (135) et possède la puissance d’accomplir les jugements [rendus d’après ses décrets]. L’homme destiné à subir une peine est entraîné à son insu vers cette peine et ballotté ça et là (136) par un mouvement qui ne s’arrête pas; enfin, comme fatigué de lutter contre les choses auxquelles il voulait résister, il se rend dans le lieu qui lui convient, et arrive par un mouvement volontaire à subir une souffrance involontaire. La loi prescrit la grandeur et la durée de la peine. Plus tard, par suite de l’harmonie qui régit tout dans l’univers, la fin du châtiment qu’endure l’âme concourt avec la faculté qu’elle reçoit de quitter les lieux où elle était.

Les âmes qui ont un corps sentent par cela même les châtiments corporels qu’elles subissent. Quant à celles qui sont pures, qui n’entraînent avec elles rien de corporel, elles ont nécessairement le privilège de n’être dans rien de corporel. Si elles ne sont dans rien de corporel (car elles n’ont pas .de corps), elles résident là où est l’essence, l’être et le divin, c’est-à-dire en Dieu. C’est là, c’est en Dieu que l’âme pure habite, avec les essences intelligibles (137). Si tu cherches encore où est une telle âme, cherche aussi où sont les intelligibles ; et si tu les cherches, ne les cherche pas avec les yeux comme si c’étaient des corps.

Guthrie

THE SOUL AFTER DEATH GOES TO THE PLACE SUITED TO IT BY RETRIBUTION.

24. Whither will the soul pass when she shall have left the body? She will not go where there is nothing suitable to receive her. She could not pass into what is not naturally disposed to receive her, unless there be something that would attract a soul that had lost her prudence. In this case, the soul remains in whatever is capable of receiving her, and follows it whither that (receptive matter) can exist and beget. Now as there are different places, it is necessary that the difference (of the dwellings in which the souls come to dwell) should be derived from the disposition of each soul, and of justice which reigns above beings. No one indeed could escape the punishment which unjust actions deserve. The divine law is inevitable, and possesses the power of carrying out the judgments (according to its decrees). The man who is destined to undergo a punishment is, in spite of himself, dragged towards that punishment, and is driven around by a movement that never stops. Then, as if wearied of struggling against things to which he desired to offer resistance, he betakes himself to the place that is suitable to him, and thus by a voluntary movement undergoes involuntary suffering. The law prescribes the greatness and duration of the punishment. Later, as a result of the harmony that directs everything in the universe, the end of the punishment endured by the soul coincides with the soul’s receiving strength to leave those places.

PURE INCORPOREAL SOULS DWELL WITHIN INTELLIGENCE IN DIVINITY.

The souls that have a body thereby feel the corporeal punishments they are undergoing. Pure souls, however, that do not carry along with them anything corporeal, necessarily enjoy the privilege of abiding in the incorporeal. Being free from having to dwell in anything corporeal as they have no bodies, they reside where is being and essence, and the divine; that is, in the divinity. There, in the divinity, with the intelligible beings, dwells the pure Soul. If you wish to locate the Soul still more exactly, go to where are the intelligible entities; and if you are looking for them, do not look for them with the eyes, as if they were (physical) bodies.

Taylor

XXIV. Souls, however, still having a body undergo corporeal punishments. But where does the soul dwell on its departure from body ? It will not indeed be here, where there is not any thing to receive it. For it is not able to abide in that which is not naturally adapted to receive it, unless the recipient has something of an unwise and insane nature which attracts the soul to it. But the soul is in such a recipient as this, if it has something besides itself; and it there follows where this recipient is naturally adapted to be and to be generated. Since, however, each place is ample, it is necessary that a difference should be produced both from the disposition of the soul, and the justice which has dominion in things. For no one can ever fly from the punishment which it becomes him to suffer for unjust deeds. For the divine law is inevitable, containing at once in itself the power of accomplishing what it has now judged to be fit. In the mean time, he who suffers is ignorantly led to that which it is proper he should suffer, being every where in his wanderings conducted in a circuitous course by an unstable motion, but at length, like one wearied by the resistance which he has made, falling into a place adapted to him, he undergoes an involuntary suffering through a voluntary motion. In the law, however, it is promulgated how much and how long it is necessary to suffer. And again, at the same time a remission of punishment concurs with the power of flying from those places [in which the punishment is inflicted] through a power of harmony by which all things are detained. But to souls that have bodies, it also pertains to undergo corporeal punishments. Souls, however, that are pure, and attract nothing whatever to themselves of body, are also necessarily unconfined by the body. If, therefore, they are not at all in body, for neither have they a body, they are there where essence and being, and that which is divine, subsist, viz. in God. Hence, a soul of this kind will be here, and together with these, and in deity. If, however, you still inquire where it will be, you must also inquire where they are. But in exploring this, do not explore it with the eyes, nor as if you were investigating bodies.

MacKenna

24. Now comes the question of the soul leaving the body; where does it go?

It cannot remain in this world where there is no natural recipient for it; and it cannot remain attached to anything not of a character to hold it: it can be held here when only it is less than wise, containing within itself something of that which lures it.

If it does contain any such alien element it gives itself, with increasing attachment, to the sphere to which that element naturally belongs and tends.

The space open to the soul’s resort is vast and diverse; the difference will come by the double force of the individual condition and of the justice reigning in things. No one can ever escape the suffering entailed by ill deeds done: the divine law is ineluctable, carrying bound up, as one with it, the fore-ordained execution of its doom. The sufferer, all unaware, is swept onward towards his due, hurried always by the restless driving of his errors, until at last wearied out by that against which he struggled, he falls into his fit place and, by self-chosen movement, is brought to the lot he never chose. And the law decrees, also, the intensity and the duration of the suffering while it carries with it, too, the lifting of chastisement and the faculty of rising from those places of pain - all by power of the harmony that maintains the universal scheme.

Souls, body-bound, are apt to body-punishment; clean souls no longer drawing to themselves at any point any vestige of body are, by their very being, outside the bodily sphere; body-free, containing nothing of body - there where Essence is, and Being, and the Divine within the Divinity, among Those, within That, such a soul must be.

If you still ask Where, you must ask where those Beings are - and in your seeking, seek otherwise than with the sight, and not as one seeking for body.