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Plotino - Tratado 27,22 (IV, 3, 22) — A alma está no corpo como a luz está no ar

Enéada IV, 3, 22

quinta-feira 21 de abril de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Capítulos 20-24: A alma está no corpo como em um lugar?

  • Cap 20 a 21: A alma não está no corpo, como em um lugar, nem como um substrato, nem como uma parte em um todo, nem como a forma na matéria, nem mesmo como o piloto em seu navio
  • Cap 22: A alma está no corpo como a luz está no ar, e é o corpo que está na alma
  • Cap 23: Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente
  • Cap 24: A saída da alma fora do corpo

Míguez

22. ¿Diremos entonces que el alma está presente en el cuerpo como el fuego lo está en el aire? Aclaremos en qué consiste la presencia del fuego en el aire, pues no se trata de que esté presente en el fuego sino mejor de que lo penetra enteramente, pero sin mezclarse a él. El fuego, en realidad, permanece inmóvil, mientras que el aire esta siempre fluyendo. Cuando el aire abandona la región de la luz, sale de ella sin dejar rastro de sí; pero, mientras está bajo la luz, permanece iluminado por ella. De modo que, verdaderamente, resultaría mejor decir que el aire está en la luz y no que la luz está en el aire. Por lo cual Platón   habla rectamente al referirse al universo, ya que no pone el alma en el cuerpo sino el cuerpo en el alma. Y dice en tal sentido que hay una parte del alma en la que se encuentra el cuerpo y otra parte en la que no hay cuerpo alguno; porque el cuerpo no necesita de algunas potencias del alma para subsistir. Lo mismo puede decirse de las otras almas. Porque, en efecto, hemos de afirmar que no hay otras potencias presentes en el cuerpo que las que este realmente necesita, Y están presentes en él sin hallarse establecidas en el todo o en las partes. Así, por ejemplo, la potencia sensitiva está presente en todas las partes que sienten y, asimismo, cada potencia está presente en un determinado órgano según la actividad que ella ejerce. Esto es precisamente lo que yo quiero decir. Plotino - Tratado 27,23 (IV, 3, 23) — Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente

Bouillet

XXII. Ce mode, le voici : L’âme est présente au corps comme la lumière est présente à l’air (ὡς τὸ φῶς πάρεστι τῷ ἀέρι) (121). La lumière en effet est présente à l’air sans lui être présente, c’est-à-dire, elle est présente à l’air tout entier sans s’y mêler, et elle demeure en elle-même tandis que l’air s’écoule : quand l’air dans lequel rayonne la lumière vient à s’éloigner d’elle, il n’en garde rien ; tant qu’il reste soumis à son action, il est illuminé (122). L’air est donc dans la lumière plutôt que la lumière n’est dans l’air (123). Aussi Platon  , en expliquant la génération de l’univers, a-t-il avec raison placé le corps [du monde] dans l’Âme et non l’Âme dans le corps : il dit aussi qu’il y a une partie de l’Âme dans laquelle est le corps, et une autre partie dans laquelle il n’y a aucun corps (124), en ce sens qu’il y a des puissances de 308 l’Âme dont le corps n’a pas besoin. Il en est de même des autres âmes : leurs puissances en général ne sont pas présentes au corps, les puissances dont le corps a besoin y sont seules présentes; et elles y sont présentes sans être édifiées (ἐνιδρυθέντα) (125) ni sur les membres ni sur le corps entier : pour la sensation, la faculté de sentir est présente tout entière à tout l’organe qui sent [au cerveau tout entier] ; de même, pour les autres fonctions, les diverses facultés sont présentes chacune à un organe différent. Je vais m’expliquer. Plotino - Tratado 27,23 (IV, 3, 23) — Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente

Guthrie

THE SOUL PRESENT IN THE BODY AS LIGHT IN AIR.

22. This is the better illustration: the soul is present in the body as light is present in air. Light is indeed present in air without being present to it; that is, light is present to the whole air without mingling with it, and light remains within itself while the air escapes. When the air, within which light radiates, withdraws from the light, the air keeps none of the light; but it is illuminated so long as the air remains subject to the action of light. Air, therefore, is in light, rather than light is in air. While explaining the generation of the universe, therefore, Plato   properly locates the body (of the world) in the soul, and not the soul in the body. He also states that there is a part of the soul that contains the body, and another in which there is no body, in this sense, that there are soul-powers of which the body has no need. The case is similar with the other souls. Their powers in general are not present to bodies, and only those powers of which the body stands in need are present to it. These however are present to the body without being built up either on the members, or upon the body as a whole. For sensation, the faculty of feeling is entirely present to the whole organ which is feeling (as, for instance, to the whole brain); likewise for the other functions, the different faculties are each present to a different organ. I shall explain myself. Plotino - Tratado 27,23 (IV, 3, 23) — Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente

Taylor

XXII. Shall we therefore say, that when the soul is present with the body, it is present in the same manner as light is with the air ? For again, this when present is [in reality] not present. And being present through the whole, is mingled with no part of it. It is also itself permanent, but the air flows by it. And when the air becomes situated out of that in which there is light, it departs possessing nothing luminous; but as long as it is under the light, it is illuminated. Hence, here also, it may be rightly said, that air is in light, rather than light in air. On this account, likewise, Plato   [in the " Timaeus   "] does not place soul in the body of the universe, hut the body of the universe in soul. And he says, that there is something of soul in which body is contained, and also something in which there is nothing of body; meaning by the latter those powers of the soul, of which the body is not indigent. The same thing, likewise, must be said of other souls. Hence, we must assert, that the other powers of the soul are not present with the body ; but that those powers are present with it of which it is indigent; and that they are present, without being established either in the parts, or in the whole of the body. We must also say, that for the purpose of sensation indeed, the sensitive power is present with the whole of the sentient [organs] ; but that with respect to energies, a different energy is present with a different part of the body. But my meaning is as follows: Plotino - Tratado 27,23 (IV, 3, 23) — Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente

MacKenna

22. May we think that the mode of the soul’s presence to body is that of the presence of light to the air?

This certainly is presence with distinction: the light penetrates through and through, but nowhere coalesces; the light is the stable thing, the air flows in and out; when the air passes beyond the lit area it is dark; under the light it is lit: we have a true parallel to what we have been saying of body and soul, for the air is in the light quite as much as the light in the air.

Plato   therefore is wise when, in treating of the All, he puts the body in its soul, and not its soul in the body, and says that, while there is a region of that soul which contains body, there is another region to which body does not enter - certain powers, that is, with which body has no concern. And what is true of the All-Soul is true of the others.

There are, therefore, certain soul-powers whose presence to body must be denied.

The phases present are those which the nature of body demands: they are present without being resident - either in any parts of the body or in the body as a whole.

For the purposes of sensation the sensitive phase of the soul is present to the entire sensitive being: for the purposes of act, differentiation begins; every soul phase operates at a point peculiar to itself. Plotino - Tratado 27,23 (IV, 3, 23) — Como as faculdades da alma se exercem localmente