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Plotino - Tratado 52,17 (II, 3, 17) — A alma produz sem reflexão

Enéada II, 3, 17

quinta-feira 2 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Cap. 17. A alma   produz sem reflexão  , graças às razões que ela recebe do Intelecto.

    

Míguez

17. ¿Podremos llamar pensamientos a estas razones que se dan en el alma  ? Pero, ¿cómo actuar verdaderamente conforme al pensamiento? Porque la razón seminal que obra en la materia es algo que actúa naturalmente; y no se trata de un pensamiento, ni de una visión, sino de una potencia que modifica la materia. Tampoco conoce, sino que obra a la manera como un sello o como una figura que se refleja en el agua; aunque como el círculo  , la potencia vegetativa y generadora recibe de otra parte su poder. Y siendo así, la parte principal del alma debe alterar   entonces el alma material y generadora. Pero, ¿la modifica luego de haber reflexionado? Porque si reflexiona, tendrá un punto de referencia; habrá de referirse a algo distinto de ella o a lo que ya se da en ella. En este caso, naturalmente, no tendría necesidad de reflexionar; porque ya no es ella la que produce la modificación, sino la potencia que encierra en sí misma las razones. Esta potencia es, en el alma, la más capacitada para actuar. Pero actúa de acuerdo con las ideas, y, para darlas, ha de recibirlas de la inteligencia. He aquí, pues que la inteligencia las da al alma del universo  , y el que viene después de la inteligencia las da a su vez al alma que viene después de ella, a la que ofrece brillo y forma; y esta última, como ordenada por aquélla, produce ya las cosas. Sin embargo, esta producción se verifica unas veces libremente y otras (caso peor) con notoria dificultad; pero teniendo, como efectivamente tiene, la capacidad de producir y hallándose cargada de razones — de razones que no son las primeras — (el alma) producirá según lo que ella misma ha recibido, y nacerá de ella como es evidente   algo que resulta siempre peor: un ser animado, pero de lo más imperfecto, que sobrelleva difícilmente su propia vida, porque es ya un ser inferior  , de natural descontentadizo y violento, como hecho de una materia también inferior. Consideraremos esta materia como el sedimento amargo dejado por los seres superiores; sedimento que se extiende y se incorpora al universo.

Bouillet

[XVII] Examinons si les raisons contenues dans l’Ame sont des pensées (νοήματα). Comment l’Ame pourrait-elle produire par des pensées? C’est la Raison qui produit dans la mati  ère (ὁ λόγος ἐν ὕλῃ ποιεῖ); or le Principe qui produit naturellement (τὸ ποιοῦν φυσικῶν) n’est pas une pensée (νοήσις), ni une intuition   (ὅρασις  ), mais une Puissance qui façonne la matière aveuglément (δύναμις τρεπτική τῆς ὕλης, οὐκ εἰδυῖα), comme un cercle donne à l’eau   une figure et une empreinte circulaire. En effet, la Puissance naturelle et génératrice (ἡ φυσικὴ δύναμις καὶ γεννητικὴ λεγομένη) a pour fonction de produire; mais il lui faut le concours de la Puissance principale de l’Ame (τὸ ηγούμενον τῆς ψυχῆς) qui forme et qui fait agir l’Ame génératrice engagée dans la matière (ἡ ἔνυλος καὶ γεννητικὴ ψυχὴ). Est-ce par le raisonnement que la Puissance principale de l’Ame forme l’Ame génératrice? Si c’est par le raisonnement, elle doit considérer soit un autre objet, soit ce qu’elle possède en elle-même, Si elle considère ce qu’elle possède en elle-même, elle n’a pas besoin de raisonner:[82] car ce n’est pas par le raisonnement que l’Âme façonne la matière, c’est par la Puissance qui contient, les raisons, Puissance qui seule est efficace et capable de produire. L’Ame produit donc par les formes (κατ’ εἴδε ποιεῖ). Elle reçoit de l’Intelligence les formes qu’elle transmet. L’Intelligence donne les formes à l’Ame universelle qui est placée immédiatement au-dessous d’elle, et l’Ame universelle les transmet à l’Ame inférieure [la Puissance naturelle et génératrice) en la façonnant et l’illuminant.[83] L’Ame inférieure produit, tantôt sans rencontrer d’obstacles, tantôt en rencontrant des obstacles: dans ce cas, elle produit des choses moins parfaites. Comme elle a reçu la puissance de produire, et qu’elle contient les raisons qui ne sont pas les premières [les raisons séminales, qui sont inférieures aux idées], non seulement elle produit en vertu de ce qu’elle a reçu, mais encore elle tire d’elle-même quelque chose qui est évidemment inférieur [la matière].[84] Elle produit sans doute un être vivant [l’univers], mais un être vivant qui est moins parfait, qui jouit moins bien de la vie, parce qu’il occupe le dernier rang, qu’il est grossier et difficile à gouverner, que la matière qui le compose est en quelque sorte la lie amère des principes supérieurs, qu’elle répand son amertume autour d’elle et en communique quelque chose à l’univers.

Guthrie

THE METHOD OF CREATION.

17. Let us examine if the «reasons» contained in the Soul are thoughts. How could the Soul produce by thoughts? It is the Reason which produces in matter; but the principle that produces naturally is neither a thought nor an intuition, but a power that fashions matter unconsciously, just as a circle gives water a circular figure and impression. Indeed, the natural generative power has the function of production; but it needs the co-operation of the governing (principle) of the Soul, which forms and which causes the activity of the generative soul engaged in matter. If the governing power of the Soul form the generative soul by reasoning, it will be considering either another object, or what it possesses in herself. If the latter be the case, she has no need of reasoning, for it is not by reasoning that the Soul fashions matter, but by the power which contains the reasons, the power which alone is effective, and capable of production. The Soul, therefore, produces by the forms. The forms she transmits are by her received from the Intelligence. This Intelligence, however, gives the forms to the universal   Soul which is located immediately below her, and the universal Soul transmits them to the inferior soul (the natural generative power), fashioning and illuminating her. The inferior soul then produces, at one time without meeting any obstacles, at others, when doing so, although, in the latter case, she produces things less perfect. As she has received the power of production, and as she contains the reasons which are not the first (the «seminal reasons,» which are inferior to the Ideas) not only does she, by virtue of what she has received, produce, but she also draws from herself something which is evidently inferior (matter). It doubtless produces a living being (the universe), but a living being which is less perfect, and which enjoys life much less, because it occupies the last rank, because it is coarse   and hard to manage, because the matter which composes it is, as it were, the bitterness or the superior principles, because it spreads its bitterness around her, and communicates some of it to the universe.

MacKenna

17. But these Reason-Principles, contained in the Soul, are they Thoughts?

And if so, by what process does the Soul create in accordance with these Thoughts?

It is upon Matter that this act of the Reason is exercised; and what acts physically is not an intellectual operation or a vision, but a power modifying matter, not conscious of it but merely acting upon it: the Reason-Principle, in other words, acts much like a force producing a figure or pattern upon water - that of a circle, suppose, where the formation of the ring is conditioned by something distinct from that force itself.

If this is so, the prior puissance of the Soul [that which conveys the Reason-Principles] must act by manipulating the other Soul, that which is united with Matter and has the generative function.

But is this handling the result of calculation?

Calculation implies reference. Reference, then, to something outside or to something contained within itself? If to its own content, there is no need of reasoning, which could not itself perform the act of creation; creation is the operation of that phase of the Soul which contains Ideal-Principles; for that is its stronger puissance, its creative part.

It creates, then, on the model of the Ideas; for, what it has received from the Intellectual-Principle it must pass on in turn.

In sum, then, the Intellectual-Principle gives from itself to the Soul of the All which follows immediately upon it: this again gives forth from itself to its next, illuminated and imprinted by it; and that secondary Soul at once begins to create, as under order, unhindered in some of its creations, striving in others against the repugnance of Matter.

It has a creative power, derived; it is stored with Reason-Principles not the very originals: therefore it creates, but not in full accordance with the Principles from which it has been endowed: something enters from itself; and, plainly, this is inferior. The issue then is something living, yes; but imperfect, hindering its own life, something very poor and reluctant and crude, formed in a Matter that is the fallen sediment of the Higher Order, bitter and embittering. This is the Soul’s contribution to the All.