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Plotino - Tratado 52,15 (II, 3, 15) — A alma superior faz escolhas antes de vir no universo

Enéada II, 3, 15

quinta-feira 2 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

15. A alma superior faz escolhas antes de vir no universo e ela aí vem com uma natureza e tendências próprias que os astros não podem fundamentalmente mudar.

Míguez

15. Platón  , antes de referirse al movimiento del huso, concede la debida importancia a la suerte elegida por nosotros; y a continuación, habla de la suerte atribuible al huso, que concurre enteramente con aquélla. También el demonio colabora en su cumplimiento. Entonces, nos preguntamos: ¿qué papel corresponde al huso? Su suerte, contestaremos, dice relación al estado del universo cuando se produce la unión del alma y el cuerpo, a la condición del mismo cuerpo en el que entra el alma, a la progenie del recién nacido y a los lugares donde nace y, por así decirlo, a todas las circunstancias externas que influyen en él. Todas estas circunstancias, en efecto; son producidas y entramadas por una de las Parcas, Cloto, que las hace manifiestas particular y totalmente, mientras que Láquesis procede al reparto de la suerte y Atropos, por su parte, la impone con absoluta necesidad. Algunos hombres hay que dependen enteramente del universo y de las cosas externas; son como hombres encantados y bien poco o nada representan. Otros, en cambio, ejercitan todo su poder, levantan su cabeza hacia lo alto y hacia fuera, y dejan a salvo lo mejor de su alma y la parte principal de su ser. No ha de creerse, pues, que el alma es de tal naturaleza que todo lo recibe de fuera; ni que ella es de tal condición que, entre todas las demás cosas, carece de una naturaleza propia. Necesita el alma, por el contrario, y mucho más que las otras cosas, puesto que ella es un principio, disponer de facultades adecuadas para la actividad que le es natural. Siendo una sustancia, no puede dejar de poseer, con la existencia, tendencias que la inclinen hacia la posesión del bien. El ser compuesto de alma y de cuerpo procede seguramente de otro cuerpo compuesto de la naturaleza, y de él tiene lo que es y su propia actividad; pero el alma, si realmente se separa del cuerpo, ha de actuar por sí misma y con independencia de aquél; las impresiones del cuerpo no le serán atribuibles porque ella ve en adelante que el cuerpo y el alma son seres distintos.

Bouillet

[XV] Platon   parle de sorts, de conditions, dont le choix est confirmé par un tour du fuseau de Clotho; il parle aussi d’un démon qui aide chacun à remplir sa destinée.[64] Quelles sont ces conditions? ce sont la disposition dans laquelle était l’univers quand les âmes entrèrent chacune dans un corps, la nature de leur corps, de leurs parente, de leur patrie, en un mot l’ensemble des circonstances extérieures. On voit que toutes ces choses, dans leurs détails aussi bien que dans leur ensemble, sont produites simultanément et liées en quelque sorte par une des Parques, par Clotho Lachésis présente les conditions aux âmes. Enfin Atropos rend irrévocable l’accomplissement de toutes les circonstances de chaque destinée.

Parmi les hommes, les uns, fasciné par l’univers et les objets extérieurs, abdiquent complètement ou partiellement leur liberté.[65] D’autres, dominant ce qui les entoure, élèvent leur tête jusqu’au ciel, et, s’affranchissant des influences extérieures, conservent libre la meilleure partie de leur âme, celle qui en forme l’essence primitive: car on aurait tort de croire que la nature de l’âme soit déterminée par les passions que lui font éprouver les objets extérieurs, qu’elle n’ait pas une essence propre par elle-même. Tout au contraire, comme elle joue le rôle de principe, elle a, beaucoup plus que les autres choses, des facultés aptes à accomplir les actes qui sont propres à sa nature. Nécessairement, puisqu’elle est une essence, elle possède, outre l’existence, des appétits, des facultés actives, la puissance de bien vivre.[66] Le composé [de l’âme et du corps, l’animal) dépend de la nature qui l’a formé, en reçoit ses qualités, ses actions. Si l’âme se sépare du corps, elle produit les actes qui sont propres à sa nature et qui ne dépendent pas du corps; elle ne s’attribue pas les passions du corps, parce qu’elle reconnaît qu’elle a une autre nature.[67]

Guthrie

A SOUL’S DESTINY DEPENDS ON THE CONDITION OF THE UNIVERSE AT BIRTH.

15. Plato   speaks of the lots, and conditions chosen by one turn of the spindle (of Clotho) ; he speaks also of a guardian who helps each man to fulfil his destiny. These conditions are the disposition of the universe at the time of the soul’s entrance into the body, the nature of their body, parents and fatherland ; in short, the aggregate of external circumstances. Evidently all these things, in detail as well as in totality, are simultaneously produced and related by one of the Fates, namely Clotho. Lachesis then presents the conditions to the souls. Finally Atropos renders the accomplishment of all the circumstances of each destiny irrevocable.

HOW SOME MEN MAY MASTER THEIR FATE: BY SELF-VICTORY.

Some men, fascinated by the universe and exterior objects, completely or partially abdicate their freedom. Others, dominating their environment, raise their head to the sky, and freeing themselves from exterior circumstances, release that better part of their souls which forms their primitive being. As to the latter point, it would be wrong to think that the nature of the soul was determined by the passions aroused in her by external objects, and that she did not possess her own individual nature. On the contrary, as she plays the part of a principle, she possesses, much more than other things, faculties suitable to accomplish actions suitable to her nature. Since she is a being, the soul necessarily possesses appetites, active faculties, and the power of living well. The aggregate (of the soul and body, the organism) depends on the nature which formed it, and from it receives its qualities and actions. If the soul separate from the body, she produces actions which are suitable to her nature, and which do not depend from the body; she does not appropriate the credit for the passions of the body, because she recognizes the difference of her nature.

MacKenna

15. According to Plato  , lots and choice play a part [in the determination of human conditions] before the Spindle of Necessity is turned; that once done, only the Spindle-destiny is valid; it fixes the chosen conditions irretrievably since the elected guardian-spirit becomes accessory to their accomplishment.

But what is the significance of the Lots?

By the Lots we are to understand birth into the conditions actually existent in the All at the particular moment of each entry into body, birth into such and such a physical frame, from such and such parents, in this or that place, and generally all that in our phraseology is the External.

For Particulars and Universals alike it is established that to the first of those known as the Fates, to Clotho the Spinner, must be due the unity and as it were interweaving of all that exists: Lachesis presides over the Lots: to Atropos must necessarily belong the conduct of mundane events.

Of men, some enter into life as fragments of the All, bound to that which is external to themselves: they are victims of a sort of fascination, and are hardly, or not at all, themselves: but others mastering all this - straining, so to speak, by the head towards the Higher, to what is outside even the Soul - preserve still the nobility and the ancient privilege of the Soul’s essential being.

For certainly we cannot think of the Soul as a thing whose nature is just a sum of impressions from outside - as if it, alone, of all that exists, had no native character.

No: much more than all else, the Soul, possessing the Idea which belongs to a Principle, must have as its native wealth many powers serving to the activities of its Kind. It is an Essential-Existent and with this Existence must go desire and act and the tendency towards some good.

While body and soul stand one combined thing, there is a joint nature, a definite entity having definite functions and employments; but as soon as any Soul is detached, its employments are kept apart, its very own: it ceases to take the body’s concerns to itself: it has vision now: body and soul stand widely apart.