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Plotino - Tratado 52,14 (II, 3, 14) — Os astros não são senão um dos numerosos fatores que podem influir

Enéada II, 3, 14

quinta-feira 2 de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

14. Os astros não são senão um dos numerosos fatores que podem influir sobre a pobreza, a riqueza, a glória e as magistraturas.

Míguez

14. ¿Cómo concebir ahora la pobreza y la riqueza, la celebridad y el poder? Porque, si la riqueza proviene de los padres, los astros dan fe de ella, lo mismo que anuncian el buen linaje si éste se debe sólo al nacimiento; ahora bien, si ha de atribuirse a la virtud, entonces el cuerpo pude colaborar a ella, contribuyendo a la vez todas las partes que fortalecen el cuerpo, como por ejemplo, y ante todo, los propios padres, y luego cualesquiera influencias recibidas, sean del cielo, sean de la tierra; aunque la virtud pudo adquirirse igualmente sin la intervención del cuerpo, con lo que la riqueza habrá de atribuirse casi por entero al mérito y a la contribución recompensadora de los dioses. Si los donantes son buenos, la causa de la riqueza habrá de buscarse en la virtud; pero si éstos son malos; y su donación es justa, es claro que habrán actuado, en este caso, según la parte mejor que hay en ellos. Si el que ha adquirido la riqueza es perverso, en su perversidad tendrá origen la riqueza adquirida; y ella será también su causa; aunque habrán colaborado al enriquecimiento todos los que hayan dado dinero a ese hombre. Si la riqueza proviene del trabajo, como ocurre en el cultivo de la tierra, deberá atribuirse al agricultor, aunque es natural que las circunstancias hayan colaborado con él; si proviene, en cambio, del descubrimiento de un tesoro, algo habrá que conceder al curso general de las cosas, con lo cual es factible su previsión, dado que, todos los hechos, sin excepción, se siguen unos de otros y pueden ser predichos en su totalidad. Si alguien ha perdido mis riquezas y si, por ejemplo, se las han robado, la causa particular de la pérdida será el ladrón y nadie más; pero, en cambio, si esas riquezas las ha perdido en el mar, la cada serán únicamente las circunstancias.

En cuanto a la fama, digamos que puede ser justa o no. Si es lo primero, habrá que atribuirla a nuestras acciones y a la opinión honrada de los demás; pero si no es justa, descansará entonces en la injusticia de quienes nos halagan. El mismo razonamiento puede aplicarse al poder: esto es, que puede ser conveniente, o no; en el caso de que lo sea, habrá que atribuirlo a la recta opinión de quienes han elegido (al hombre); y si no lo es, entonces se habrá conseguido con la ayuda ajena o con el concurso de cualquier otro medio. La unión matrimonial descansa en la libre elección, o en una serie de circunstancias casuales y azarosas atribuibles al curso del universo; lo mismo ocurre con el nacimiento de los hijos: pues si nada lo impide, el niño es conformado según la razón (seminal), en tanto esta conformación resulta deficiente si algún obstáculo interno como la disposición de la mujer encinta u otras circunstancias concomitantes se muestran desfavorables al embarazo.

Bouillet

[XIV] Que dirons-nous de la pauvreté, des richesses, de la gloire, des commandements? Si un homme tient ses richesses de ses parents, les astres ont seulement annoncé qu’il serait riche, comme ils se sont bornés à annoncer sa noblesse, s’il la devait à sa naissance. Si un homme a acquis des richesses par son mérite et que son corps y ait contribué, les causes qui ont donné à son corps de la vigueur ont pu concourir à sa fortune: ce sont, d’abord ses parents, ensuite sa patrie, si elle a un bon climat, enfin la fécondité du sol.[63] Si cet homme doit ses richesses à sa vertu, c’est à sa vertu seule qu’il faut les attribuer, ainsi que les avantages périssables qu’il peut posséder par une faveur divine. S’il a reçu ses richesses de personnes vertueuses, sa fortune a encore pour cause la vertu. S’il a reçu ses richesses d’hommes pervers, mais pour un motif juste, elles proviennent d’un bon principe qui a agi en eux. Enfin, si un homme qui a amassé des richesses est pervers, la cause de sa fortune est cette perversité même et le principe dont elle provient; il faut encore comprendre dans l’ordre des causes ceux qui ont pu lui donner de l’argent. Un homme doit-il ses richesses à des travaux, par exemple, à des travaux d’agriculture, elles ont pour causes les soins du laboureur et le concours des circonstances extérieures. A-t-il trouvé un trésor, quelque chose de l’univers a dû y contribuer. Cette découverte a pu d’ailleurs être annoncée: car toutes les choses s’enchaînent les unes aux autres, et, par conséquent, s’annoncent mutuellement. Un homme dissipe-t-il ses richesses, il est la cause de leur perte; lui sont-elles ravies, la cause est le ravisseur. Y a-t-il eu naufrage, beaucoup de choses ont pu y concourir. La gloire est acquise justement ou injustement. Est-elle acquise justement, elle est due à des services rendus ou à l’estime des autres hommes. Est-elle acquise injustement, elle a pour cause l’injustice de ceux qui accordent des honneurs à cet homme. Il en est de même d’un commandement, il est ou il n’est pas mérité: dans le premier cas, il est dû à l’équité des électeurs ou à l’activité de l’homme qui l’a obtenu par le concours de ses amis, ou à toute autre circonstance. Un mariage est déterminé par une préférence, ou par une circonstance accidentelle, ou par le concours de plusieurs circonstances. La procréation des enfants en est une conséquence: elle a lieu conformément à la raison [séminale], s’il ne se rencontre pas d’obstacle; si elle est vicieuse, c’est qu’il y a quelque défaut intérieur soit dans la mère qui conçoit, soit dans le père qui est mal disposé pour cette procréation.

Guthrie

ANY OCCURRENCE MAY BE DUE TO MANY DIFFERENT CAUSES.

14. Poverty, wealth, glory, and authoritative positions may have many different causes. If a man derive his wealth from his parents, the stars have only announced that he would be rich; and they would have only announced his nobility if he owed his wealth to his birth. If a man acquire wealth by his merit, in some way in which his body contributed thereto, the causes of his bodily vigor co-operated in his fortune; first his parents, then his fatherland, if it be possessed of a good climate, and last the fertility of the soil. If this man owe his wealth to virtue, this source should be considered exclusive; and likewise with the transitory advantages he may by divine favor possess. Even if his wealth be derived from virtuous persons, still, in another way, his fortune is due to virtue. If his wealth were derived from evil men, though by a just means, yet the wealth proceeds from a good principle which was active in them. Finally, if a man who has amassed wealth be evil, the cause of his fortune is this very wickedness, and the principle from which it derives; even those who may have given him money must be included in the order of its causes. If a man owe his wealth to labor, such as agricultural work, the causes of the wealth include the care of the ploughman and the co-operation of exterior circumstances. Even if he found a treasure, it is something in the universe which contributed thereto. Besides, this discovery may have been foretold; for all things concatenate with everything else, and, consequently, announce each other. If a man scatter his wealth, he is the cause of their loss; if his wealth be taken from him, the cause is the man who takes it. Many are the contributory causes of a shipwreck. Glory may be acquired justly or unjustly. Just glory is due to services rendered, or to the esteem of other people. Unjust glory is caused by the injustice of those who glorify that man. Deserved power is due to the good sense of the electors, or to the activity of the man who acquired it by the co-operation of his friends, or to any other circumstance. A marriage is determined by a preference, or by some accidental circumstance, or by the co-operation of several circumstances. The procreation of children is one of its consequences; it occurs in accordance with the "seminal reason," in case it meet no obstacle; if it be defective, there must be some interior defect in the pregnant mother, or the fault lies in the impotence of the father.

MacKenna

14. What of poverty and riches, glory and power?

In the case of inherited fortune, the stars merely announce a rich man, exactly as they announce the high social standing of the child born to a distinguished house.

Wealth may be due to personal activity: in this case if the body has contributed, part of the effect is due to whatever has contributed towards the physical powers, first the parents and then, if place has had its influence, sky and earth; if the body has borne no part of the burden, then the success, and all the splendid accompaniments added by the Recompensers, must be attributed to virtue exclusively. If fortune has come by gift from the good, then the source of the wealth is, again, virtue: if by gift from the evil, but to a meritorious recipient, then the credit must be given to the action of the best in them: if the recipient is himself unprincipled, the wealth must be attributed primarily to the very wickedness and to whatsoever is responsible for the wickedness, while the givers bear an equal share in the wrong.

When the success is due to labour, tillage for example, it must be put down to the tiller, with all his environment as contributory. In the case of treasure-trove, something from the All has entered into action; and if this be so, it will be foreshown - since all things make a chain, so that we can speak of things universally. Money is lost: if by robbery, the blame lies with the robber and the native principle guiding him: if by shipwreck, the cause is the chain of events. As for good fame, it is either deserved and then is due to the services done and to the merit of those appraising them, or it is undeserved, and then must be attributed to the injustice of those making the award. And the same principle holds is regards power - for this also may be rightly or unrightly placed - it depends either upon the merit of the dispensers of place or upon the man himself who has effected his purpose by the organization of supporters or in many other possible ways. Marriages, similarly, are brought about either by choice or by chance interplay of circumstance. And births are determined by marriages: the child is moulded true to type when all goes well; otherwise it is marred by some inner detriment, something due to the mother personally or to an environment unfavourable to that particular conception.