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Plotino - Tratado 52,7 (II, 3, 7) — Existe uma adivinhação pelos astros

Enéada II, 3, 7

quarta-feira 1º de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Cap. 7-8: A adivinhação pelos astros é possível.

  • 7. Existe uma adivinhação pelos astros, pois o universo é um vivente único, o qual é regido por uma só e mesma ordem que une todas as coisas nada deixando ao azar.
  • 8. A alma é responsável desta ordem e ela produz tudo; os astros anunciam tudo.

Míguez

7. Pero, si los astros, son los encargados de revelar el futuro y, como decirnos, no son otra cosa, entre muchas, que signos anunciadores del porvenir, ¿a quién hemos de atribuir lo que acontece? ¿Cómo se produce el orden de los hechos? Porque es claro que no podrían ser anunciados si no respondiesen a un orden. En nuestra opinión los astros son letras escritas constantemente en el cielo, o quizá mejor letras ya escritas y que se mueven; entre otras cosas, expresan una verdadera significación. Y ocurre así (en el universo) lo que vemos en el ser animado, donde se puede conocer una parte deduciéndola de otra. En el hombre, por ejemplo, se llega al conocimiento del carácter mirando a los ojos o a otra parte cualquiera de su cuerpo; y esto nos lleva a descubrir los peligros que le acechan y la posibilidad de preservarse de ellos. Partes son ésas del hombre, y parte somos nosotros también del universo; otros seres tienen asimismo sus partes.

Todo está lleno de signos y el sabio conoce una cosa por los indicios que recibe de otra. Para todos está claro el conocimiento de lo que es habitual; así se comprende que, en el vuelo de los pájaros o en otros animales encontremos un fundamento para nuestras predicciones. Porque conviene que todas las cosas dependan unas de otras, y, como se ha dicho, hay un acuerdo total, no sólo en el individuo tomado particularmente, sino con mucha más razón y primordialmente el universo, hasta el punto de que la unidad de principio hace unas las diversas partes del ser animado y produce la unidad de una pluralidad. Pues así como en cada ser particular sus partes tienen una acción privativa, así también en el todo del universo cada ser tiene su función propia y con mucho mayor motivo en este caso porque no se trata sólo de partes sino de todos de gran dimensión. Cada uno de los seres procede de un mismo principio, pero hace la obra que le compete, colaborando a la vez con los demás; porque ninguno de los seres aparece separado del conjunto, sino que actúa sobre los demás y sufre también la acción de los otros. Todos los seres van al encuentro, entristeciéndose o alegrándose con ello. Pero, sin embargo, no proceden por azar ni de manera casual, ya que cada ser proviene de otro y produce a su vez un tercero siguiendo los dictados de la naturaleza.

Bouillet

[VII] En effet, si les astres indiquent les événements futurs, comme le font beaucoup d’autres choses, quelle est la cause de ces événements mêmes? Comment est maintenu l’ordre sans lequel les faits ne sauraient être indiqués? Il faut donc admettre que les astres ressemblent des lettres qui seraient tracées à chaque instant dans le ciel, ou qui, après y avoir été tracées, seraient sans cesse en mouvement, de telle sorte que, tout en remplissant une autre fonction dans l’univers, elles auraient cependant une signification (σημασία).[24] C’est ainsi que, dans un être animé par un principe unique, ou peut juger d’une partie par une autre partie; en considérant, par exemple, les yeux ou quelque autre organe d’un individu, on connaît quel est son caractère, à quels périls il est exposé, comment il peut y échapper. De même que nos membres sont des parties de notre corps, nous sommes nous-mêmes des parties de l’univers. Les choses sont donc faites les unes pour les autres. Tout est plein de signes, et le sage peut conclure une chose d’une autre. Aussi beaucoup de faits habituels sont-ils prévus par tous les hommes. Tout est coordonné dans l’univers (σύνταξις μία).[25]

C’est en vertu de cette coordination que les oiseaux fournissent des auspices, que les autres animaux nous donnent des présages. Toutes choses dépendent mutuellement l’une de l’autre. Tout conspire à un but unique (σύμπνοια μία)[26] non seulement dans chaque individu, dont les parties sont parfaitement liées ensemble, mais, antérieurement et à un plus haut degré, dans l’univers. Il y faut un principe unique pour rendre un cet être multiple, pour en faire l’animal un et universel. De même que, dans le corps humain, chaque organe a sa fonction propre, de même dans l’univers les êtres ont chacun leur rôle particulier; d’autant plus qu’ils ne sont pas seulement des parties de l’univers, mais qu’ils forment encore eux-mêmes des univers qui ont aussi leur importance.[27] Toutes choses procèdent donc d’un principe unique, remplissent chacune leur rôle particulier et se prêtent un mutuel concours. En effet, elles ne sont pas séparées de l’univers, elles agissent et subissent l’action les unes des autres.[28] Chacune d’elles est secondée ou contrariée par une autre. Mais leur marche n’est pas fortuite, n’est pas l’effet du hasard. Elles forment une série où chacune, par une liaison naturelle, est l’effet de ce qui précède, la cause de ce qui suit.[29]

Guthrie

THE STARS ARE CHANGING SIGNS BETRAYING THE UNIVERSAL CONSPIRACY OF PURPOSE.

7. In fact, we would still have to ask ourselves for the cause of the events (in our world) even if the stars, like many other things, really prognosticated future events. We would still have to wonder at the maintenance of the order without which no events could be prefigured. We might, therefore, liken the stars to letters, at every moment flung along the heavens, and which, after having been displayed, continued in ceaseless motion, so that, while exercising another function in the universe, they would still possess significance. Thus in a being animated by a single principle it is possible to judge one part by another; as it is possible, by the study of the eyes or some other organ of an individual, to conclude as to his characters, to the dangers to which he is exposed, and how he may escape them. Just as our members are parts of our bodies, so are we ourselves parts of the universe. Things, therefore, are made for each other. Everything is significant, and the wise man can conclude from one thing to another. Indeed many habitual occurrences are foreseen by men generally. In the universe everything is reduced to a single system. To this co-ordination is due the possibility of birds furnishing us with omens, and other animals furnishing us with presages. All things mutually depend from each other. Everything conspires to a single purpose, not only in each individual, whose parts are perfectly related; but also in the universe, and that in a higher degree, and far earlier. This multiple being could be turned into a single universal Living organism only by a single principle. As in the human body every organ has its individual function, likewise in the universe each being plays its individual part; so much the more that they not only form part of the universe, but that they themselves also form universes not without importance. All things, therefore, proceed from a single principle, each plays its individual part, and lends each other mutual assistance. Neither are they separate from the universe, but they act and react on each other, each assisting or hindering the other. But their progress is not fortuitous, nor is it the result of chance. They form a series, where each, by a natural bond, is the effect of the preceding one, and the cause of the following one.

MacKenna

7. But, if the stars announce the future - as we hold of many other things also - what explanation of the cause have we to offer? What explains the purposeful arrangement thus implied? Obviously, unless the particular is included under some general principle of order, there can be no signification.

We may think of the stars as letters perpetually being inscribed on the heavens or inscribed once for all and yet moving as they pursue the other tasks allotted to them: upon these main tasks will follow the quality of signifying, just as the one principle underlying any living unit enables us to reason from member to member, so that for example we may judge of character and even of perils and safeguards by indications in the eyes or in some other part of the body. If these parts of us are members of a whole, so are we: in different ways the one law applies.

All teems with symbol; the wise man is the man who in any one thing can read another, a process familiar to all of us in not a few examples of everyday experience.

But what is the comprehensive principle of co-ordination? Establish this and we have a reasonable basis for the divination, not only by stars but also by birds and other animals, from which we derive guidance in our varied concerns.

All things must be enchained; and the sympathy and correspondence obtaining in any one closely knit organism must exist, first, and most intensely, in the All. There must be one principle constituting this unit of many forms of life and enclosing the several members within the unity, while at the same time, precisely as in each thing of detail the parts too have each a definite function, so in the All each several member must have its own task - but more markedly so since in this case the parts are not merely members but themselves Alls, members of the loftier Kind.

Thus each entity takes its origin from one Principle and, therefore, while executing its own function, works in with every other member of that All from which its distinct task has by no means cut it off: each performs its act, each receives something from the others, every one at its own moment bringing its touch of sweet or bitter. And there is nothing undesigned, nothing of chance, in all the process: all is one scheme of differentiation, starting from the Firsts and working itself out in a continuous progression of Kinds.