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Plotino - Tratado 52,5 (II, 3, 5) — O calor e o frio, o dia e a noite, e as fases lunares não têm efeitos

Enéada II, 3, 5

quarta-feira 1º de junho de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

Míguez

5. Dícese de alguno de estos planetas que es frío, pero al encontrarse más alejado de nosotros, se hace más beneficioso, dado que se ve en el frío el principio del mal que nos produce. Convendría entonces que al hallarse en los signos opuestos a nosotros su acción fuese del todo benéfica. Opuestos ambos, a su vez, el planeta frío y el planeta caliente, producen entre ellos efectos terribles; y, sin embargo, parece que debieran moderarse. De uno de los planetas (el planeta frío) dícese que se alegra con el día y se vuelve bueno una vez en posesión del calor; de otro se afirma que goza con la noche, por ser un planeta incandescente. ¿Cómo si no fuese siempre de día para los planetas? ¿O es que no están constantemente en la región de la luz y caen, por el contrario, en la región de la noche, ellos, precisamente, que se hallan muy por encima de la sombra de la tierra? Añádese todavía que la conjunción de la luna llena con el planeta resulta beneficiosa, y perjudicial la de la luna nueva, cosa contraria a lo que ciertamente se pretende; porque al hablar de luna llena para nosotros se supone la oscuridad de su otro hemisferio en relación con ese planeta, que se encuentra por encima de la luna; y al hablar de luna nueva respecto a nosotros se quiere significar plenitud para ese mismo planeta. Y he aquí que debiera producirse lo contrario: porque la luna nueva, para nosotros, aparece con toda su luz para el planeta. Sea lo que sea, ninguna diferencia resulta para la luna misma, que se ofrece siempre con una cara iluminada; pero ya no puede afirmarse otro tanto de ese planeta que, según dicen, recibe su calor. El planeta se calentará si la luna es nueva para nosotros; y su influencia se dejará sentir en él benéficamente si la luna es nueva para nosotros y llena para el planeta. La oscuridad que para nosotros presenta la luna dice relación a la tierra y no puede entristecer a lo que está por encima de ella. Pero el planeta, a su vez, no puede sustituir a la luna en razón de su alejamiento, y nos parece así que la luna nueva es maléfica. Por el contrario, cuando la luna es llena para nosotros, resulta suficiente para todo lo que está debajo, esto es, para la tierra, y ello aunque el planeta se halle alejado. La luna, entonces, ensombrecida como se ofrece para el planeta incandescente, parece beneficiosa para nosotros; se basta a sí misma para esta acción, en tanto el planeta contiene demasiado fuego para producirla.

Todos los cuerpos de los seres animados que provienen de lo alto son cálidos, en mayor o menor medida; ninguno de ellos es, desde luego, frío. El lugar donde se encuentran sirve claramente de prueba. El planeta llamado Júpiter cuenta solamente con un fuego moderado; y lo mismo ocurre con el que nombran Lucífero Por esta semejanza que presentan, los dos planetas parecen de acuerdo; y se reúnen así con el planeta denominado ardiente (Marte), permaneciendo en cambió extraños a Saturno, por su lejanía. En cuanto a Mercurio, resulta indiferente, y semejante, según parece, a todos los demás planetas. Todos ellos componen una sinfonía universal; de tal modo qué su relación recíproca es realmente lo que conviene al todo. Y así se comprueba cómo en cada animal las partes se disponen para el conjunto. Ocurre, por ejemplo, con la bilis, que aparece conformada al todo y, singularmente, con la parte que le está próxima; conviene que despierte nuestros afectos, pero, a la vez, que tanto el todo como las partes vecinas cierren el Y paso a su desmesura. Otro tanto parece convenir al conjunto del ser vivo, que dispondrá, además de la pasión buena, de una inclinación al placer. Las otras partes vendrán a ser los ojos de su alma, todas ellas condescendientes con la parte irracional. Así diremos que el ser animado es uno y que se da en él una armonía única. ¿Cómo, pues, no ver aquí signos evidentes, por analogía (de la armonía del universo)?

Bouillet

[V] On prétend que la planète froide [Saturne] est meilleure pour nous quand elle est encore éloignée, parce qu’on fait consister dans le froid qu’elle répand le mal qu’elle produit sur nous; cependant le bien devrait se trouver pour nous dans les signes opposés du zodiaque. On ajoute que quand la planète froide [Saturne] est en opposition avec la planète chaude [Mars], toutes les deux nous deviennent nuisibles;[15] il semble cependant que leurs influences devraient se tempérer mutuellement. On dit en outre que tel astre [Saturne] aime le jour, dont la chaleur le rend favorable aux hommes, que tel autre [Mars] aime la nuit, parce qu’il est igné, comme s’il n’y avait pas dans le ciel un jour perpétuel, c’est-à-dire une lumière continuelle, ou comme si un astre pouvait être plongé dans l’ombre [projetée par la terre] quand il se trouve très éloigné de la terre.

On affirme que la Lune, en conjonction avec tel astre [Saturne], est favorable quand elle est pleine, et nuisible quand elle n’est plus dans son plein. On devrait admettre le contraire, si toutefois la Lune possède quelque influence. En effet, quand elle nous présente une face pleine, elle présente une face obscure à la planète qui se trouve au-dessus d’elle [Saturne ou Mars] ; quand son disque décroît de notre côté, il croit de l’autre côté; il devrait donc produire un effet contraire quand il décroît de notre côté et qu’il croit du côté de la planète qui est au-dessus. Ces phases n’ont point d’importance pour la Lune, puisqu’une de ses faces est toujours éclairée. Il ne peut en résulter quelque chose que pour la planète qui en reçoit sa chaleur [Saturne]; or celle-ci sera échauffée si la Lune tourne de notre côté sa face obscure. Donc la Lune est bonne pour cette planète quand elle est pleine pour elle et obscure pour nous. D’ailleurs, cette obscurité de la Lune pour nous a de l’importance pour les choses terrestres, mais n’en a aucune pour les choses célestes[16] . . . Enfin, quand la Lune présente sa face obscure à la planète ignée [Mars], elle semble bonne à notre égard : car la puissance de cette planète, plus ignée que l’autre [Saturne], est alors suffisante par elle-même.

Au reste, les corps des êtres animés qui se meuvent dans le ciel peuvent être plus chauds les uns que les autres; aucun d’eux n’est froid; le lieu même où ils sont en témoigne assez. L’astre qu’on nomme Jupiter est convenablement mélangé de feu. Il en est de même de Lucifer [Vénus]. Aussi paraissent-ils être en harmonie. Quant à ce qui regarde la planète qu’on nomme ignée, πυρόεις [Mars], elle concourt au mélange [à l’action générale des astres]. Pour Saturne, il en est autrement, parce qu’il est éloigné. Mercure est indifférent, dit-on, parce qu’il s’assimile facilement à tous.[17]

Toutes ces planètes concourent à former le Tout (τὸ ὅλον); elles sont donc entre elles dans un rapport convenable pour le Tout, comme les organes d’un animal sont faits pour l’ensemble qu’ils constituent.[18] Considérez en effet une partie du corps; la bile, par exemple: elle sert à tout l’animal et à l’organe qui la contient, parce qu’il était nécessaire qu’elle excitât le courage, qu’elle ne laissât pas léser le corps entier ni la partie où elle est placée. Il fallait qu’il en fût de même dans l’univers: [qu’il y eût quelque chose d’analogue à la bile],[19] que quelque chose de doux le tempérât, que certaines parties jouassent le rôle d’yeux, et que toutes choses eussent de la sympathie les unes pour les autres par leur vie irrationnelle (συμπαθῆ τάντα τῷ ἀλόγῳ αὐτῶν).[20] C’est ainsi que l’univers est un et qu!il y règne une harmonie unique (τὸ πᾶν ἐν καὶ μία ἁρμονία).[21] Comment ne pas admettre qu’en vertu des lois   de l’analogie, toutes ces choses peuvent être des signes?

Guthrie

THE RELATIONS OF SATURN AND MARS QUITE ILLOGICAL.

5. The cold planet (Saturn) is said to be more beneficent for us when it is distant, because the evil that it produces on us is said to consist of its cold effluence; in which case our good should consist in the zodiacal signs opposite to us. It is also asserted that when the cold planet (Saturn) is in opposition to the warm planet (Mars), both become harmful; yet it would seem that their influences should neutralize each other. Besides, it is held that (Saturn) likes the day, whose heat renders it favorable to men, while (Mars) likes the night, because it is fiery, as if in heaven there did not reign a perpetual day, that is, a continual light; or as if a star could be plunged into the shadow (projected by the earth) when it is very distant from the earth.

FABULOUS INFLUENCES OF THE MOON

It is said that the moon, in conjunction with (Saturn) is favorable when full, but harmful when otherwise. The opposite, however, ought to be the truth if the moon possess any influence. In fact, when it presents a full face, it presents its dark face to the planet above it (Saturn or Mars); when its disk decreases on our side, it increases on the other; therefore, it ought to exert a contrary influence when it decreases on our side, and when it increases on the side of the planet above it. These phases are of no importance for the moon, inasmuch as one of its sides is always lit. Nothing can result from it but for the planet which receives heat from it (Saturn); now this one will be heated whenever the moon turns towards us its dark side. Therefore, the moon is good for this planet when it is full towards it, but dark towards us. Besides, this obscurity of the moon for us can be of importance only for terrestrial things, not for the celestial.....(?).....but if, because of its distance, it does not support the moon, then it must be in a worse predicament; when the moon is full, it is sufficient for terrestrial things, even when the moon is distant.....Finally, when the moon presents its obscure side to the fiery planet (Mars), it seems beneficent towards us; for the power of this planet, more fiery than (Saturn), is then sufficient by itself.

JUPITER, VENUS, AND MERCURY ALSO CONSIDERED ASTROLOGICALLY.

Besides, the bodies of the animated beings which move in the heaven may be of different degrees of heat; none of them is cold, as is witnessed to by their location. The planet named Jupiter is a suitable mixture of fire; likewise with Venus. That is why they seem to move harmoniously. As to the fiery planet Mars, it contributes its share to the mixture (of the general action of the stars). As to Saturn, its case is different, because of its distance. Mercury is indifferent, because it assimilates itself easily to all.

THE UNIVERSE AS A SINGLE HARMONY.

All these planets contribute to the Whole. Their mutual relation, therefore, is one suitable to the universe, just as the organs of an animal are shaped to take part in the organism they constitute. Take, for instance, a part of the body, such as the bile, which serves both the whole animal that contains it, and its special organ, inasmuch as it was necessary to arouse courage, and to oppose the injury of both the whole body, and its special organ. There had to be something similar (to bile) in the universe; that something sweet should soften it, that there be parts that would play the role of eyes, and that all things should possess mutual sympathy by their irrational life. Thus only is the universe one, and thus only is it constituted by a single harmony. How then could it be denied that all these things might be signs, resulting from the laws   of analogy?

MacKenna

5. When they tell us that a certain cold star is more benevolent to us in proportion as it is further away, they clearly make its harmful influence depend upon the coldness of its nature; and yet it ought to be beneficent to us when it is in the opposed Zodiacal figures.

When the cold planet, we are told, is in opposition to the cold, both become meanacing: but the natural effect would be a compromise.

And we are asked to believe that one of them is happy by day and grows kindly under the warmth, while another, of a fiery nature, is most cheerful by night - as if it were not always day to them, light to them, and as if the first one could be darkened by night at that great distance above the earth’s shadow.

Then there is the notion that the moon, in conjunction with a certain star, is softened at her full but is malignant in the same conjunction when her light has waned; yet, if anything of this order could be admitted, the very opposite would be the case. For when she is full to us she must be dark on the further hemisphere, that is to that star which stands above her; and when dark to us she is full to that other star, upon which only then, on the contrary, does she look with her light. To the moon itself, in fact, it can make no difference in what aspect she stands, for she is always lit on the upper or on the under half: to the other star, the warmth from the moon, of which they speak, might make a difference; but that warmth would reach it precisely when the moon is without light to us; at its darkest to us it is full to that other, and therefore beneficent. The darkness of the moon to us is of moment to the earth, but brings no trouble to the planet above. That planet, it is alleged, can give no help on account of its remoteness and therefore seems less well disposed; but the moon at its full suffices to the lower realm so that the distance of the other is of no importance. When the moon, though dark to us, is in aspect with the Fiery Star she is held to be favourable: the reason alleged is that the force of Mars is all-sufficient since it contains more fire than it needs.

The truth is that while the material emanations from the living beings of the heavenly system are of various degrees of warmth - planet differing from planet in this respect - no cold comes from them: the nature of the space in which they have their being is voucher for that.

The star known as Jupiter includes a due measure of fire [and warmth], in this resembling the Morning-star and therefore seeming to be in alliance with it. In aspect with what is known as the Fiery Star, Jupiter is beneficent by virtue of the mixing of influences: in aspect with Saturn unfriendly by dint of distance. Mercury, it would seem, is indifferent whatever stars it be in aspect with; for it adopts any and every character.

But all the stars are serviceable to the Universe, and therefore can stand to each other only as the service of the Universe demands, in a harmony like that observed in the members of any one animal form. They exist essentially for the purpose of the Universe, just as the gall exists for the purposes of the body as a whole not less than for its own immediate function: it is to be the inciter of the animal spirits but without allowing the entire organism and its own especial region to run riot. Some such balance of function was indispensable in the All - bitter with sweet. There must be differentiation - eyes and so forth - but all the members will be in sympathy with the entire animal frame to which they belong. Only so can there be a unity and a total harmony.

And in such a total, analogy will make every part a Sign.