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Plotino - Tratado 2,14 (IV, 7, 14) — As almas dos viventes individuais

Enéada IV, 7, 14

sábado 14 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

tradução

14. Quanto ao que é da alma dos outros viventes, todas essas, entre elas, que cometeram faltas e que vieram até em corpos de animais, é necessário que elas também sejam imortais. Mas há uma outra espécie de alma, ela não deve vir de alhures senão desta natureza que vive; ela também existe e ela causa vida nos viventes, e em particular nas plantas. Porque todas brotaram de um mesmo princípio dotadas de vida própria, e elas também são incorpóreas e sem partes e substâncias. Mas se é dito que a alma humana, posto que tripartite, será dissolvida por causa de sua composição, devemos também dizer que as almas puras quando são liberadas abandonam o que foi plasmado nelas em seu nascimento, mas as outras permanecem com isto por um longo tempo; mas quando a pior parte é abandonada, mesmo isto não morre, enquanto isso desde que tem sua origem existe. Pois nada de ser real perece.

Igal

14 Pasando al alma de los demás animales, todas aquellas que, por ser almas caídas, bajaron hasta encarnarse en cuerpos de bestias necesariamente son, también ellas, inmortales; y si hay alguna otra especie de alma, ni aun ésta debe provenir de otro principio que de la naturaleza viviente, pues ésta es también causa de vida para los animales; más aún, lo mismo vale del alma de las plantas. Porque todas brotaron de un mismo principio dotadas de vida propia, y aun éstas son incorpóreas, indivisas y sustancias. Y si se dice que el alma del hombre, siendo tripartita, se ha de disolver por ser compuesta, también nosotros diremos que las almas puras, al liberarse, depondrán la parte que se les adhirió al encarnarse, y que las otras convivirán con ella muchísimo tiempo, pero que, una vez depuesta la parte inferior, ni aun ésta ha de perecer mientras exista aquello de donde toma su principio. Porque nada de cuanto proviene del ser ha de perecer.

Bouillet

[XIV] Quant aux animaux inférieurs à l’homme, les âmes [raisonnables] qui ont poussé l’égarement jusqu’à descendre dans des corps de brutes sont cependant immortelles aussi (92). S’il y a des âmes d’une autre espèce [que les âmes raisonnables], elles ne peuvent procéder que de la nature vivante [c’est-à-dire de l’Âme universelle (93) ], et elles sont nécessairement des principes de vie pour tous les animaux. Il en est de même des âmes qui sont dans les végétaux (94). En effet, toutes les âmes sont sorties du même principe [l’Âme universelle], toutes ont une vie propre, sont des essences indivisibles et incorporelles. Si l’on dit qu’il faut que l’âme humaine se décompose parce qu’elle comprend trois parties (95), nous répondrons que, lorsque les âmes sortent d’ici-bas, celles qui sont purifiées quittent ce qui leur avait été ajouté dans la génération (96), que les autres s’en affranchissent avec le temps. Au reste, cette partie inférieure de l’âme elle-même ne périt pas; elle existe aussi longtemps que le principe dont elle procède. En effet, rien de ce qui existe ne s’anéantit.

Guthrie

ALL SOULS HAVE IMMORTALITY, EVEN IF SUNK INTO ANIMALS OR PLANTS.

14. (19). What about the souls of animals inferior to man? The (rational) souls that have strayed so far as to descend into the bodies of animals are nevertheless still immortal. Souls of a kind other (than rational souls), cannot proceed from anything else than the living nature (of the universal Soul); and they necessarily are the principles of life for all animals. The case is the same with the souls that inhere in plants. Indeed, all souls have issued from the same principle (the universal Soul), all have an individual life, and are indivisible and incorporeal essences ("beings").

EVEN IF THE SOUL HAS DIFFERENT PARTS, THE ORIGINAL PARTS SURVIVE.

To the objection that the human soul must decompose because she contains three parts, it may be answered that, when souls issue from here below, those that are purified leave what had been added to them in generation (the irrational soul,) while the other non-purified souls do free themselves therefrom with time. Besides, this lower part of the soul does not itself perish, for it exists as long as the principle from which it proceeds. Indeed, nothing that exists is annihilated.

Taylor

XIV. With respect to the souls of other animals, such among these as have fallen from a better, condition, and have proceeded as far as to brutal bodies, these likewise are necessarily immortal. But if there is another species of soul, it is necessary that this also should not be derived from any other source than a vital nature, since this likewise is the cause of life to animals, and besides this, of the life which is in plants. For all these proceeding from the same principle, have an appropriate life of their own. And these souls also are incorporeal, impartible, and essences. If, however, it is requisite that the soul of man being tripartite should be dissolved with the composite, we must say that pure souls which are liberated from the body, dismiss that which adhered to them in generation; but that this is accomplished by others in long periods of time. That also which is dismissed, is the worst part, nor will this be destroyed, as long as that subsists from whence it originates. For nothing which is comprehended in being perishes.

MacKenna

14. (19) As for the souls of the other living beings, fallen to the degree of entering brute bodies, these too must be immortal. And if there is in the animal world any other phase of soul, its only possible origin, since it is the life-giver, is, still, that one principle of life: so too with the soul in the vegetal order.

All have sprung from one source, all have life as their own, all are incorporeal, indivisible, all are real-beings.

If we are told that man’s soul being tripartite must as a compound entity be dissolved, our answer shall be that pure souls upon their emancipation will put away all that has fastened to them at birth, all that increment which the others will long retain.

But even that inferior phase thus laid aside will not be destroyed as long as its source continues to exist, for nothing from the realm of real being shall pass away.