Página inicial > Antiguidade > Neoplatonismo (245-529 dC) > Plotino (204-270 dC) – Tratados Enéadas > Plotino - Tratado 2,13 (IV, 7, 13) — Como a alma vem ao corpo?

ENÉADAS

Plotino - Tratado 2,13 (IV, 7, 13) — Como a alma vem ao corpo?

Enéada IV, 7, 13

sábado 14 de maio de 2022, por Cardoso de Castro

    

Capítulo 13: Como a alma   vem ao corpo?
A alma do mundo   vem ao corpo sem estar no corpo: ela produz, embeleza e dirige todas as coisas no mundo.

    

tradução

13. Como, portanto, posto que o inteligível é separado, a alma   vem ao corpo?

Da maneira seguinte: tudo o que é intelecto   puro não cessa, impassível, de conduzir uma vida somente intelectiva nos inteligíveis e permanece sempre aí — pois não tem nem tendência nem desejo. Mas o que vem em seguida após este intelecto e que comporta, a mais, um desejo, já vai por assim dizer mais longe pela junção do desejo, e em seu desejo de produzir uma ordem   conforme ao que viu no intelecto, e se esforça por produzir, como se estivesse grávido dos inteligíveis e que ressentisse as dores do parto, e então fabrica. E tencionada por este sério   esforço que se exerce no sensível  , é de concerto com toda alma do universo   que esta alma domina o que ela governa do exterior e que ela toma conta do universo, mas quando ela deseja governar uma parte ela se encontra isolada e vem a se encontrar nesta parte na qual se encontra, sem no entanto pertencer inteiramente ao corpo, mas guardando algo de exterior a ele. mas esta alma se encontra ora em um corpo e ora fora de um corpo. Tomando seu elã a partir das realidades primeiras, ela avança até às realidades de terceiro nível, aquelas daqui de baixo, pela atividade   do intelecto que permanece no mesmo lugar, e que, por meio da alma, preenche todas as coisas de beleza e as põe em ordem, realidade imortal que utiliza uma realidade imortal, na medida que, porque é sempre a mesma, o intelecto perdurará em uma atividade   sem fim.

Igal

13 —Entonces, si lo inteligible es transcendente, ¿cómo es que el alma se encarna en el cuerpo?

—Porque todo ser que sea sólo inteligencia, vive impasible entre los inteligibles con una vida puramente intelectiva y se queda allá por siempre, pues en él no hay tendencia ni deseo; pero el ser   que, estando a continuación de aquella inteligencia, conciba además un deseo, en virtud de la añadidura de este deseo avanza ya más adelante, por así decirlo; y deseando poner orden conforme a los seres que vio en la inteligencia, como fecundado por ellos y sintiendo angustias de parto, se afana por producir y crea. Y, aunque a consecuencia de este afán (el alma) está extendida por lo sensible, no obstante, si se queda en compañía del Alma universal   del conjunto   cósmico  , sobresale por fuera del objeto de su gobierno y colabora con aquélla en el cuidado   del universo; pero aunque llevada del deseo de gobernar una parte se aísle y se encarne en el cuerpo en que está, no toda el alma ni toda alma se hace alma del cuerpo, sino que a la vez mantiene una parte fuera del cuerpo. La inteligencia no es, por tanto, pasible, ni siquiera la de esta alma. Esta alma, en cambio, unas veces está en el cuerpo y otras fuera del cuerpo, procediendo, eso sí, de las realidades primeras, pero avanzando hasta las terceras, hasta las citeriores a la inteligencia, como actividad que es de una inteligencia que permanece en identidad y llena de belleza todas las cosas y las dispone ordenadamente mediante el alma —un inmortal mediante un inmortal—, si es verdad que también la inteligencia ha de seguir siendo por siempre ella misma merced a una actividad incesante.

Bouillet

[XIII] Comment se fait-il que l’âme descende dans un corps (88) puisque les intelligibles sont séparés des choses sensibles? — Tant que l’âme est une intelligence pure, impassible, qu’elle jouit d’une vie purement intellectuelle comme les autres êtres intelligibles, elle demeure parmi eux : car elle n’a ni appétit ni désir. Mais, la partie qui est inférieure à l’Intelligence et capable d’avoir des désirs suit leur impulsion, procède (πρόεισιν) et s’éloigne du monde intelligible. Désirant orner la mati  ère sur le modèle des idées qu’elle a contemplées dans l’Intelligence, pressée de déployer sa fécondité et de mettre au jour les germes qu’elle porte en son sein (89), l’âme s’applique à produire et à créer, et, par suite de cette application, elle est en quelque sorte tendue vers les objets sensibles. D’abord, elle partage avec l’Âme universelle le soin d’administrer le monde entier, sans y entrer cependant; puis, voulant en administrer seule une partie, elle se sépare de l’Âme universelle, et passe dans un corps. Mais, lors même qu’elle est présente au corps, l’âme ne se donne pas à lui tout entière, quelque chose d’elle en reste dehors: ainsi, son intelligence reste impassible (90).

L’âme est tantôt dans le corps, tantôt dehors. En effet, quand, écoutant son inclination, elle descend des choses qui occupent le premier rang [c’est-à-dire des choses intelligibles] à celles qui occupent le troisième [c’est-à-dire vers les choses d’ici-bas], elle procède (προελθοῦσα) par la vertu de l’acte de l’Intelligence, qui, restant en elle-même, embellit tout par le ministère de l’âme, et qui, étant elle-même immortelle, ordonne tout par une puissance immortelle : car l’Intelligence existe toujours par un acte continu (91).

Guthrie

DESCENT INTO THE BODY NEED NOT CONFLICT WITH THE ETERNITY OF SOUL.

13. (18). If intelligible entities are separated from sense objects, how does it happen   that the soul descends into a body? So long as the soul is a pure and impassible intelligence, so long as she enjoys a purely intellectual life like the other intelligible beings, she dwells among them; for she has neither appetite nor desire. But that part which is inferior   to intelligence and which is capable of desires, follows their impulsion, «proceeds» and withdraws from the intelligible world. Wishing to ornament matter on the model of the Ideas she contemplated in Intelligence, in haste to exhibit her fruitfulness, and to manifest the germs she bears within her (as said Plato, in the Banquet  ), the soul applies herself to produce and create, and, as result of this application, she is, as it were, orientated (or, in «tension») towards sense-objects. With the universal Soul, the human soul shares the administration of the whole world, without, however, entering it; then, desiring to administer some portion of the world on her own responsibility, she separates from the universal Soul, and passes into a body. But even when she is present with the body, the soul does not devote herself entirely to it, as some part of her always remains outside of it; that is how her intelligence remains impassible.

THE SOUL AS THE ARTIST OF THE UNIVERSE.

The soul is present in the body at some times, and at other times, is outside of it. When, indeed, following her own inclination, she descends from first-rank entities (that is, intelligible entities) to third-rank entities (that is, earthly entities), she «proceeds» by virtue of the actualization of intelligence, which, remaining within herself, embellishes everything by the ministration of the soul, and which, itself being immortal, ordains everything with immortal power; for intelligence exists continuously by a continuous actualization.

Taylor

XIII. How, therefore, since the intelligible is separate, does the soul descend into body ? (Thomas Taylor – queda da alma no corpo) Because so far as intellect alone is impassive in intelligibles, having an intellectual life alone, it abides there eternally. For it has not any impulse, or appetite. But that which receives appetite, and is next in order to that intellect, by the addition of appetite proceeds as it were to a greater extent, and being desirous to adorn, in imitation of the forms which it sees in intellect, it becomes as it were pregnant from them. Hence, becoming parturient, it hastens to make and fabricate, and through this f destination becoming extended about a sensible nature, when it subsists in conjunction with the soul of the universe, it transcends the subject of its government, by being external to it, and thus together with the mundane soul presides over the universe with a providential care. But when it wishes to govern a part of the world, it then governs alone, and becomes [merged] in that in which it is; yet not so as to be wholly absorbed by body, but even then it possesses something external to body. Hence, neither is the intellect of this soul passive. But this soul is at one time in body, and at another external to it. And being impelled, indeed, to descend from first natures, it proceeds as far as to such as rank in the third degree, and to those with which we are conversant, by a certain energy of intellect; intellect at the same time abiding in itself, and through soul filling every thing with all that is beautiful, being an immortal adorner through an immortal soul. For intellect itself also exists eternally, through unceasing energy.

MacKenna

13. (18) But how does the soul enter into body from the aloofness of the Intellectual?

There is the Intellectual-Principle which remains among the intellectual beings, living the purely intellective life; and this, knowing no impulse or appetite, is for ever stationary in that Realm. But immediately following upon it, there is that which has acquired appetite and, by this accruement, has already taken a great step outward; it has the desire of elaborating order on the model of what it has seen in the Intellectual-Principle: pregnant by those Beings, and in pain to the birth, it is eager to make, to create. In this new zest it strains towards the realm of sense: thus, while this primal   soul in union with the Soul of the All transcends the sphere administered, it is inevitably turned outward, and has added the universe to its concern: yet in choosing to administer the partial and exiling itself to enter the place in which it finds its appropriate task, it still is not wholly and exclusively held by body: it is still in possession of the unembodied; and the Intellectual-Principle in it remains immune. As a whole it is partly in body, partly outside: it has plunged from among the primals and entered this sphere of tertiaries: the process has been an activity of the Intellectual-Principle, which thus, while itself remaining in its identity, operates throughout the soul to flood the universe with beauty and penetrant order - immortal mind  , eternal in its unfailing energy, acting through immortal soul.